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Rwanda: Ihakana rya jenoside yakorewe Abahutu

Rwanda: Ihakana rya jenoside yakorewe Abahutu
Uyu munyarwandakazi upfukamye ahetse umwana yari ari ku muhanda ujya i Goma, Zaire, mu 1994. Abanyarwanda ikivunge bahungaga ibikorwa biteye ubwoba by’ingabo za FPR zihutaga zibasatira ziturutse hakurya y’umupaka zerekeza mu cyahoze cyitwa Zaïre. Jambonews, Kuwa 01 Ukwakira 2019.

Inyandiko itari iyacu:  ikubiyemo ibitekerezo bya Rudatinya Mbonyumutwa, niwe wayiduhaye ngo tuyitangaze.

Burya nta jenoside ibura abahakanyi.

Jenoside FPR (Front Patriotique Rwandais) ya Paul Kagame yakoreye Abahutu bo mu Rwanda  , mu gihe kirenze imyaka icumi kuva mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1991, nayo  ikomeje guhakanwa.

Nyamara, guhakana icyaha cy’ubugome cyabaye mu buryo budashidikanywaho ntabwo byafatwa gusa nk’igikorwa cyo gushyigikira uwagikoze ahubwo byafatwa nk’ubufatanyacyaha bugambiriye gukomeza kugitsotsoba.

Jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ifite ibiyiranga ihuriyeho n’izindi jenoside ariko ifite  n’ibindi yihariye.

Ihakana ryayo naryo rifite aho rihurira n’ihakana ry’izindi jenoside ariko rikanagira aho bitandukanira.

Jenoside irangwa no kuba abayikoze batabihanirwa

Kimwe n’izindi jenoside, iyi nayo yujuje ibiranga icyaha cy’ubugome gisumba ibindi, ni ukuvuga icyaha kigambiriye gukura ku isi undi umuhora iyo ari cyo.

Ariko kandi mu biyiranga yihariye kandi biteye ubwoba hashyirwa cyane mu cyezi kuba abayikoze bakomeje kwidegembya nta nkomyi.

Abo nibo bamaze imyaka 25 bategekau Rwanda. Ibyo bakoze bikomeje kwirengagizwa n’amahanga, ibi bikaba bitumvikana na gato.

Ubu biragaragara ku buryo budashidikanywaho ko jenoside yakorewe Abahutu kuva kuwa 01 Ukwakira 1990 yabereye icyanzu umugambi mubisha wa ba  mpatsibihugu bototeraga Afurika mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 20.

Intambara yashojwe na FPR igihe itera Repubulika y’u Rwanda kuva kuwa 01 Ukwakira 1990 yari ishingiye rwose ku mpamvu za politiki yo kwihimura yakomeje kuranga abatemera revolisiyo yo muri 1959 yavanye mu bucakara rubanda nyamwinshi ari bo  Bahutu.

Ariko na none biragaragara ko iyo ntambara yari ishingiye ku mpamvu za politiki mpuzamahanga aho ibihugu bivuga ururimi rw’Icyongereza byashakaga kwagura igihagararo cyabyo no gusahura amabuye y’agaciro aboneka mu Burengarazuba bwa Repubilika ya Kongo ku nyungu z’’ibigo mpuzamahanga by’ubucuruzi bikorera ku mugabane w’Uburayi n’Amerika.

Muri iyi myaka ishize, ibitabo byaranditswe ku bwinshi bigaruka kuri iyo ngingo ku buryo butaziguye. Ibi bikaba bihoza, ariko by’amaburakindi, abarokotse kuko nibura batangiye kumva uko byagenze mu gihe bagitegereje kurenganurwa n’ubutabera.

Ibyabaye nta bindi, ni igihango hagati y’ibigo mpuzamahanga by’ubucuruzi n’agatsiko k’abasirikare b’Abanyarwanda bari mu ngabo za Uganda icyo gihe.Ibyo bigo byiyemeje kubatera inkunga y’amafaranga, iya politiki n’iy’ itangazamakuru, abandi na bo biyemeza kubaha rugari mu gusahura amabuye y’agaciro nkenerwa mu ikoranabuhanga rigezweho.

Tubitekerejeho,biragaragara nta shiti ko ifatwa ry’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda na FPR binyuze mu nzira y’intambara no kuvogera icyitwaga Zaire ariyo ubu Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, bitari gushoboka hatabayeho gutsemba abaturage b’Abahutu bagize igice kinini cy’Abanyarwanda ku ijanisha rya 85, niba umugambi wari uwo gushinga ubutegetsi bwa gisirikare buyobwe na ba nyamuke b’Abatutsi.

Ariko isesengura ry’iyo ntambara rishingiye ku mbonerahamwe y’amoko n’udutsiko dufitanye isanomuzi ryaba ricumbikiye aha.

Biragaragara neza ko FPR ari umutwe wa politiki witwara gisirikare washinzwe na ba nyamuke b’Abatutsi wirukanye ku butegetsi ba nyamwinshi b’Ababahutu babitewemo inkunga n’ingabo z’igihugu cy’abaturanyi cya Uganda, hamwe na ba shebuja bo mu bihugu by’i Bulayi n’Amerika.

Nyamara kandi, ntabwo ibyabaye rwose ari ubwicanyi hagati y’amoko nk’uko bikunze gusomwa cyangwa se imirwano hagati y’Abahutu n’Abatutsi muri rusange.

Abahutu benshi kimwe n’Abatutsi baguye muri iyo ntambara ari nako bibasirwa n’ibyaha by’ubugome byakozwe n’imitwe ya politiki hamwe n’iyitwara gisirikare, harimo na FPR ya Paul Kagame.

Kudahana ba nyirabayazana ni ikimenyetso cya mbere kiranga iyi jenoside yabaye intandaro y’amasezerano ba gashakabuhake bagiranye n’ingabo za FPR. Kimwe cya kabiri cy’abasirikare bakuru b’izi ngabo bari bafite imyaka 25 mu 1994, naho abahitanywe n’intambara barakabakaba miliyoni ebyiri n’igice.

Kudahana birarimbanyije kugeza aho gutunga agatoki ku mugaragaro abakoze iyi jenoside bifatwa nko kwikururira akaga.

Kudahana ni cyo kibi kiruta ibindi cyabaho nyuma y’icyaha cy’ubugome bw’aka kagene.

Kudahana bihembera guhakana kandi bigahungeta bidasubirwaho abibasiwe ari nako bituma uwakoze ibyaha yumva yarakoze ibikwiye cyane cyane iyo icyo cyaha cyamubereye icyanzu cyo gufata ubutegetsi.

Jenoside yanditsweho kandi ivugwaho byinshi

Ikimenyetso cya kabiri kiranga iyi jenoside ni ukuba yaranditsweho kandi ikavugwaho byinshi, nyamara ibi ntibibuza abayikoze kwidegembya.

Koko rero, jenoside zose zagiye zandikwaho kandi zivugwaho byinshi. Ntabwo byakumvikana ko icyaha cy’ubugome nka jenoside idashidikanywaho kitagira ibimenyetso cyangwa abatangabuhamya. Ariko kandi, ku birebana na jenoside yakorewe Abahutu, hari umwihariko w’uko ibimenyetso biyisobanura byivugira.

Kuba muri iki gihe ariyo jenoside ya nyuma mu mateka y’ikiremwamuntu, byatumye ibyogajuru bifata amashusho na za filimi z’ibikorwa byayiranze.

Hari amashusho make yagiye ku ka rubanda maze aba imbarutso yo gukora za filimi zikubiyemo ubutumwa bukomeye.H avugwa nka filimi yitwa:’’ Tears of the Sun / Les larmes du soleil’’.Ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni:’’Amarira y’izuba’’.Iyi filimi yakozwe na Antoine Fuqua, yasohotse mu 2003 harimo umukinnyi w’ikirangirire witwa Bruce Willis.

Hagarukwa kandi no ku maraporo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yakozwe n’indorerezi zidafite aho zibogamiye mu rwego rw’ubutumwa bw’akazi bari bashinzwe n’uwo muryango.

Raporo yamamaye ku izina rya ‘’ Rapport Mapping’’ yasohowe muri Kamena 2010 na Komisiyo y’Uburenganzera bw’Ikiremwamuntu mu Muryango w’Abibumbye, ni inyandiko ngenderwaho igaruka kuri ubwo bwicanyi (https://www.ohchr.org/documents/countries/cd/drc mapping report final fr.pdf) itakorwa n’uwari we wese cyane cyane ko yakozwe n’itsinda ry’abantu b’inararibonye bayobowe na Madamu Navanathem Pillay wabaye Prezidate w’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, na Madamu Louise Arbour wabaye Umushinjacyaha Mukuru muri urwo Rukiko.

Ku rupapuro rwa 589 rw’inyandiko ‘’rapport Maping’’, igika cya 514, handitse ibikurikira bigaragaza ku buryo budashidikanywa imiterere y’icyo cyaha cy’ubugome:

‘’ Mu gihe ibyabaye bivugwa muri iyi raporo, abaturage b’Abahutu bo muri Zaire harimo n’impunzi zavuye mu Rwanda, bagize itsinda ry’ubwoko nk’uko biteganywa n’amasezerano akumira kandi agahana icyaha cya jenoside. Nyuma y’ibyo, nk’uko byagaragajwe mbere, ubushake bwo kurimbura  igice cy’abagize itsinda ntibushidikanywaho kugira ngo ibyabaye byitwe jenoside(…) Bishobora kwemezwa ko ibyabaye ari jenoside igihe cyose bigaragaye ko abakoze ibyo byaha bari bafite uwo mu gambi, kabone n’ubwo hibasiwe  kandi hakarimburwa igice cy’Abahutu bari muri Zaïre. Mu gusoza,biragaragara ko ibikorwa bitandukanye byarondowe bishyira mu cyezi  ibitero byibasiraga abagize itsinda ry’ubwoko bw’abahutu nyine (…)’’

Ibyanditswe mu ibara ry’umukara binanditse muri iryo bara mu nyandiko yavuzwe haruguru.

Nyamara kandi, hari izindi nyandiko nyinshi. Haguarukwa ku nyandiko ebyiri ziheruka zitagombye kwirengagizwa.

Hari inyandiko ya Bwana Robert Gersony yo kuwa 19 Ukwakira 1994 n’iya Bwana Roberto Garreton yo kuwa 02 Mata 1997.

Inyandiko ya Gersonyyavugaga by’umwihariko jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ku butaka bw’u Rwanda mu gihe cy’intambara ya FPR na nyuma imaze gufata ubutegetsi. Nyamara, ubutumwa bwa nyir’iyi inyandiko bwari u gucukumbura ibyaha by’ubugome byakorewe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda guhera  mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994, kuko bumvaga ko ibyo byaha byose  ko byakozwe n’Interahamwe.

Iyi nyandiko ni ingenzi by’umwihariko kuko ishingiye ku icukumbura ritabogamye ryabaye hagati y’ukwezi kwa Kamena na Nzeri 1994 aho nyir’ubwite yigereye ahantu hageze kuri cumi na habiri habereye ubwicanyi mu Rwanda, akivuganira imbonankubone n’abarokotse ubwicanyi batunze agatoki FPR mu bikorwa by’ubwicanyi byahitanye benshi kurusha ibindi.

Inyandiko ya Gersony iri mu byatumye ’Umwanzuro 955 waranditswe mu buryo butabogamye kandi  bwa rusange. Uwo mwanzuro wafashwe n’Akanama gashinzwe Umutekano k’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kuwa 08 Ugushyingo 1994, wemezaga ishingwa ry’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda.

Uwo mwanzuro washyizeho Urukiko Mpuzamahanga kugira ngo rukurikirane ibyaha by’ubugome byakorewe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda no ku butaka bw’abaturanyi hagati ya 01 Mutarama 1994 na 31 Ukuboza 1994, ariko ntiwigeze uvuga  na busa abazakurikiranwa abo aribo ndetse n’ababa baribasiwe abo ari bo.

Bivuze ko uwo muryango wafunguye amarembo mu gukurikirana no guhana ibyaha byose bihanwa n’amategeko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha byakozwe n’abanyabyaha bose. Ni ukuvuga ibyaha byakozwe n’ Interahamwe n’ibyakozwe na FPR.

Nyamara kubera impamvu za politiki, Umushinjacyaha Mukuru w’Ururukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda yahisemo kudakurikirana ibyaha byakozwe na FPR. Ibi bikaba aribyo byatumye habaho no guha rugari kudakurikirana ibyaha byakozwe na FPR dore imyaka ibaye 25.

Hashingiwe ku ihame ritanga ububasha bwo gukurikirana ibyaha aho byabereye hose harimo ibyaha by’intambara, ibyaha bihungabanya uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu n’icyaha cya jenoside, hari ibihugu bibiri byanze guterera agati mu ryinyo byimakaza kudahana.

Ni muri urwo rwgo,umucamanza w’Umusipanyolo Fernando Andreu Merelle,nyuma yo kwakira ibirego  by’imiryango y’abahohatewe,yakurikiranye ibyo byaha maze ashyiriraho impapuro muri Gashyantare 2008 zo guta muri yombi abayobozi bakuru 40 ba FPR abashinja jenoside, ibyaha bihungabanya ikiremwamuntu n’ibyaha by’intambara.

Ubufaransa na bwo bwakurikiranye ku buryo buziguye ibyo byaha igihe bwakurikiranaga icyaha cy’iterabwoba ryahitanye abapiloti n’abafasha babo bose b’ Abafaransa bari bashinzwe iby’indege yari itwaye Perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana n’ibindi bikomerezwa birimo mugenzi we w’u Burundi Sipiriyani Ntaryamira.

Nyamara, nyuma yo gukurikiranwa, abo bakekwaho ibyaha ntabwo bigeze bashyikirizwa inkiko kugira ngo baburanishwe. Ibi bigaterwa n’inyungu za politiki tutibagiwe n’impamvu za politiki mpuzamahanga zibiri inyuma.

Jenoside yigambwa n’abayikoze

Ntibisanzwe! Nk’uko bigaragazwa neza mu nyandiko, iyi ni jenoside yanditsweho na bamwe mu bayikoze. Aha, hagarukwa ku bitabo bibiri by’abasirikare ba FPR byerekana amataliki ibyaha byakorewe, aho byakorewe n’ibimenyetso , byafasha by’umwihariko abahohotewe.

Mu mateka ya muntu, nta na rimwe abakoze ibyaha bya jenoside bigeze  babyicuza kugeza aho babyatura ku bushake ndetse nta gahato babicishije mu bitabo byakwifashishwa na buri wese, keretse mu Rwanda. Aha,havugwa nk’igitabo cya Abdul Ruzibiza cyitwa:’’Rwanda: l’histoire secrete’’, ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda:’’Rwanda: amateka yagizwe ibanga’’ cyangwa icy’umunyamakuru Jacques Pauw cyiswe :’’Rat Roads’’,ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda:’’Imihanda y’imbeba’’.Uyu munyamakuru icyo yakoze ni ugukusanya no gushyira mu nyandiko ubuhamya yiherewe ubwe n’uwahoze ari umusirikare wa FPR ku birebana n’ibyaha by’ubugome yakoze.

Aha, birakwiye gushimangirwa ko aba batangabuhamya batuye bakavuga ibyo bakoze ku bushake, kuko nyine ko ibyo bavuze byashobora gushidikanywaho iyo baza kubivuga bari muri gereza cyangwa bashyizweho igitutu.

Hifashishijwe ibyanditswe n’ibyavuzwe bigaragaza neza itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ku buryo bunoze kandi buri kuri gahunda, ubutabera busabwa n’abahohotewe mu ijwi riranguruye bwaboneka mu rubanza rw”urucabana ugereranyije n’imanza  zaciwe kugeza ubu n’Inkiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga cyangwa n’Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga ku birebana n’ibindi byaha by’ubugome.

Ikindi kandi, abakoze iyi jenoside babarizwaga mu ngabo zifite inzego kandi zigambaga ko ngo zirangwa n’ubunyamwuga. Biroroshye rero kumenya ababikoze n’ubwo bitagombye guhinduka urubanza rw’abasirikare bato barimo n’abinjijwe mu gisirikare bakiri abana.

Hakurikijwe uko byagenze, impunzi nyinshi zarokotse jenoside yakorewe Abahutu zivugira ko zaburirwaga n’abasirikare ba FPR bari mu masibo y’imbere bazibwiraga ngo zihunge kuko inyuma habaga haje abandi basirikare bari bashinzwe kwica abaturage.

Ikindi, i Bulayi hari abasirikare benshi bahoze mu ngabo za FPR bivugira uko bakoze akazi, bakemeza ko kandi hari igihe bakeneraga tingatinga zivuye i Buganda kugira ngo batabe mu byobo rusange mu Rwanda abo babaga bamaze kwica.

Umwe muri bo yiyemerera ko urutoki rwe rwigeze gutumba kubera kwiriza umunsi arasa abaturage b’Abahutu badafite intwaro akoresheje imbunda ya Kalachnikov. Ibi byabereye mu cyahoze ari Perefegitura ya Byumba mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda.

Abakoze iyo jenoside ntibigeze bakurikiranwa, ku buryo muri iyi minsi kuri murandasi hagwiriye inkuru zibavuga imyato aho bashinyagurira abiciwe bigamba ku mugaragaro ibyaha by’ubugome babakoreye. Inkuru ya nyuma muri izo zibavuga ibigwi, ni iyiswe ‘’Inkotanyi’’ yasohotse muri cinema.

Icyobo cyajugunywemo abantu cyavumbuwe muri iyi nkambi y’impunzi z’Abahutu kuwa 27 Mata 1995. Ubu bwicanyi bugambiriwe bwakozwe n’ingabo za FPR zitwaga APR. Havumbuwe ahantu 18 hiciwe Abahutu nk’uko bivugwa muri raporo ya TPIR. – PASCAL GUYOT/AFP.

Jenoside yabaye inzira y’umusaraba igihe kirekire

Ikimenyetso cya gatatu kiranga iyi jenoside ni uko yamaze igihe kirekire.

Mu mateka ya vuba aha, ni ukuvuga amateka aranga ikinyejana cya 20, nta jenoside yamaze igihe kirekire ikorwa nk’iyi.

Raporo yiswe ‘’Mapping report’’ yavuzwe haruguru, yacukumbuye ibyabaye mu gihe kiri hagati ya 1993 na 2003. Ni ukuvuga imyaka 10, ni igihe kirekire bihagije kugira ngo igice cy’abaturage b’Abahutu bakomoka mu Rwanda batsembwe, kimwe n’igice cy’abavandimwe babo b’Abakongomani, bo baziraga ubukungu buri mu butaka bw’igihugu cyabo.

Nyamara nta gushidikanya ko iyi jenoside yatangiye rwose mbere ya 1993 mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, kandi biragoye kumenya igihe nyakuri yahagarariye cyane ko nta gikorwa cya politiki cyangwa cya gisirikare cyayikomye imbere.

Jenoside igera kubyo igamije

Ikimenyetso cya kane kiranga iyi jenoside kimwe n’ibindi byose bitarondorwa hano mu buryo bwa rusange, ni uburyo abayikoze bujuje inshingano. Nyamara kandi ni nayo jenoside irangwa no kugira abayirokotse benshi kurusha izindi jenoside zabayeho kugeza ubu.

Koko rero, iyi jenoside yageze kubyo yari igamije kuko yatumye ba gashakabuhake  bagera vuba ku ntego yabo kirimbuzi.

Abahutu bari hafi miliyoni 6 mu Rwanda mu ntangiriro za 1994 babarizwaga mu nzego za Leta n’iz’abikorera ntabwo birukanywe gusa muri izo nzego ahubo barazimiye.

Abenshi barahunze, undi mubare munini muri bo warafunzwe ariko kandi kuba batakigaragara ni uko ahanini bakorewe itsembatsemba ryimbitse. Mu kigwi cyabo hasigaye gusaurungano rw’abakiri bato bashavujwe.

Iyi jenoside byaragaragaye ko yageze ku ntego yayo muri iki cyerekezo. Ntabwo rero bitangaje ko kudahana abayikoze byabatera  kwiyumvamo icyizere ko ibyo bakoze byari bikwiye kandi bakaba baramaramaje kuba bakongera kubikora mu gihe cyose babona bikwiye.

Jenoside yibasiwe n’ihakana ryuje ubucakura

Ku birebana n’ihakana ryayo, iri naryo ntaho ritaniye n’uburyo bukoreshwa bwo guhakana izindi jenoside zose.

Nta n’umwe utinyuka guhakana ibyabaye, ni ukuvuga itsembatsemba ryimbitse ry’igice cy’abaturage b’Abahutu mu Rwanda no ku butaka bwa Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo bwakozwe na FPR itararebeye izuba abagabo, abagore n’abana.

Iyi jenoside ikaba rero itarigeze yibasirwa n’uburyo bw’ihakana ry’ibanze rirangwa no guhakana ibikorwa nyirizina biyiranga, no kwemeza ko nta n’icyabaye.

Ariko kandi ibi ntibivuze ko ubundi buryo bw’ihakana bwayibasiye butuje ubugome cyangwa butari gica.

Gupfobya umubare w’abishwe

Uburyo bwa mbere muri ubwo ni ugupfobya umubare w’abishwe. Ubu buryo bw’ihakana bwibasiye jenoside zose.

Hari umunsi tudasoma cyangwa ngo twumve havugwa ko umubare w’Abahutu bishwe utarenga 500.000?

Nk’aho bo ari bake!

Birahagije kwifashisha urugero rw’inkambi zo mu Burasirazuba bwa Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, aho impunzi zishwe zabaruwe ku buryo bwitonze n’Imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamu yari yaje kuzitabara muri Nyakanga 1994.

Izo nkambi zabarurirwagamo impunzi 2.800.000 mu kwezi k’Ukwakira 1996 bucya ziri buterwe zikanasenywa n’ingabo za FPR.

Mu kwezi kwa Gicurasi 1997, Leta y’u Rwanda iyobowe na FPR yigambye kuba yaracyuye ku ngufu impunzi 500.000 naho izindi zikangazwa mu mashyamba ya Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, ku mupaka w’u Rwanda mu gice cy’Uburasirazuba no ku mupaka wa Kongo Brazaville ku gice cy’Uburengerazuba.

Umubare w’impunzi zarokokeye muri Kongo nk’uko wemejwe na HCR mu ntangiriro z’umwaka 1998 no mu myaka yakurikiyeho urangana na 400.000.

Ni uwo mubare kugeza ubu wemejwe kandi ushobora gutuma hamenyekana Abanyarwanda biciwe na FPR ku butaka bwa Kongo hagati ya 1996 na 1997 no mu  myaka yakurikiyeho. Bivuze ko hapfuye impunzi zigera kuri 1.500.000 hafatiwe kuri bake barokotse bashoboye guhungira mu bihugu by’ibituranyi.

Kubera imirwano yacaga ibintu, miliyoni imwe y’impunzi z’Abahutu zarahunze maze 2.000 muri zo zishobora gufata gari ya moshi yahuzaga Biaro na Kisangani. Kubera ubucucike, yageze Kisangani abantu 100 bamaze gupfira muri urwo rugendo. Umudamu ufite uruhinja ararira kubera ko umwe mu bavandimwe be amaze gupfa.

Guhindura inyito y’icyaha cy’ubugome

Igikurikiraho ni ukugoreka inyito y’icyo cyaha cy’ubugome cyakorewe Abahutu. Ubi bikaba ari bwo buryo bw’ihakana bumaramaje bugaragara muri iyi minsi.

Icyaha cya jenoside nicyo cyaha gikomeye kurusha ibindi, nk’uko biteganywa n’amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera inyoko muntu. Birumvikana ko guhindura inyito yacyo biba bigambiriye koroshya ubukana bwacyo.

Niyo mpamvu usanga jenoside FPR yakoreye Abahutu yitwa akenshi ihohoterwa cyangwa igakerenswa byimbitse yitwa ubwicanyi bwibasiye abantu bamwe cyangwa ubwicanyi bwibasira imbaga.

Muri iki gihe, ibikorwa biyiranga ntashidikanya byatumye hari bamwe bemera ko nibura ari icyaha cy’ubugome cyibasiriye ikiremwa muntu, ariko bakirinda gukoresha ijambo jenoside.

Ni ngombwa rwose guhamya icyo cyaha inyito yacyo uko bikwiye nta kuyihindura, kandi abo icyo cyaha cyibasiriye bakavugwa uko bitwa, kuko  bazize jenoside.

Ni muri urwo rwego ko imvugo zikomatanya nka ‘’jenoside nyarwanda’’,’’amahano yo mu Rwanda’’, ‘’amakuba yo mu Rwanda’’ zafatwa nk’izidakwiye hashingiwe ku mwihariko wa jenoside yakorewe Abahutu cyangwa jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Niba iki cyaha cy’ubugome cyarakorewe aharangwaga ibindi byaha by’ubugome bikomeye byibasiye inyokomuntu, ntabwo bikwiye ko cyapfukiranwa n’inyito za rusange kuko bitera urujijo.

Ni ukuvuga ko ngo, hashingiwe k’uko ibintu byagenze no ku mategeko, habayeho jenoside ebyiri mu Rwanda. Iyakorewe Abahutu na FPR hagati ya 1993 na 2003 ariko kandi n’iyakorewe Abatutsi ikozwe n’Interahamwe muri rusange hagati y’ukwezi kwa Mata na Nyakanga 1994. Kubikomatanya bikitwa ‘’jenoside nyarwanda’’ byaba ari ukuzihakana zombi.

Guhindanya abahohotewe

Guhindanya abahohotewe ni uburyo budashidikanywaho bwuje ubugome bwambaye umugoma mu guhakana jenoside kandi bufitanye isano no guhindura inyito y’icyo cyaha cy’ubugome.

Guhera mu 1994, itangazamakuru ridakwiye kwizerwa, bigaragara neza ko rikorera abakoze iyo jenoside, ryihaye umugambi wo guhindanya Abahutu bose muri rusange ribaha isura mbi mu maso ya rubanda.

Amazi yarenze inkombe ubwo mu 1996 umunyamakurukazi yandikaga  ati ese nta wakwibaza niba  abana bicwaga batari abajenosideri b’igihe kizaza barazwe ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside? Ibi yabyandikaga  mu gihe FPR yari iri gusenya i inkambi z’impunzi z’Abahutu zari mu Burasirazuba bwa Repuburika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo,koresheje imbunda za rutura, igatsemba abagabo, abagore n’abana isi yose irebera.

Uwo munyamakurukazi yabyemeraga gutyo ko Abahutu muri rusange ari abajenosideri. Kuri we kandi Abahutu batari intagondwa, abapfuye cyangwa abasigaye mu Rwanda nibo bonyinye batasabitswe n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yakongejwe urubyaro rwabo.

Iyo mvugo ‘’Abahutu batari intagondwa’’ iri mu mujyo wa ya gahunda yagutse yo guhindanya kuko igamije gucengeza ku buryo buhanitse igitekerezo cy’uko Abahutu ari babi bya karemano ariko kandi hakaba muri bo hari abashobora kuba bashyira mu gaciro.

Ni byo koko birashoboka ko umuntu yaba intagondwa cyangwa ntabe yo hashingiwe ku bitekerezo bye ariko ntabwo waba yo mu buryo bwa karemano. Biroroshye kumva neza umugambi w’abacuze iyo mvugo kandi bakigerageza gukomeza kuyisigasira.

Ubwo buryo bwo guhindanya abagambiriwe kurimburwa bazira gusa uko baremwe, hashinjwa ibyaha cy’ubugome itsinda ry’ubwenegihugu cyangwa ry’ubwoko babarizwamo nk’uko byakorewe abashinjwaga kuba barishe Yezu Kristo, hashize imyaka n’imyaniko buzwi . Ibi akenshi, nako  iteka byumvwa vuba na bamwe muri rubanda.

Iyo abahohotewe bahindanyijwe, ibyaha by’ubugome byabakorewe bihabwa abusorusiyo cyangwa bikabonerwa ibisobanuro. Ibi bituma bitakaza umwimerere wabyo nk’ibyaha by’ubugome bikaba byafatwa nko gushaka kwihimura cyangwa kwihorera, nabwo igihe  hari ukibyibazaho.

Urugero ruteye ubwoba ku birebana n’u Rwanda ni ibyerekeye uburyo abantu bafungirwa mu Rwanda mu buryo usanga nta kindi bategereje uretse urupfu, tutibagiwe inkiko Gacaca zari zifite inshingano mbere ya byose yo kurimbura abagabo b’Abahutu, haherewe cyane ku ntiti. Byavugwaga ko izi nkiko zigamije guhana abakoze jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi nyamara ibi si byo byari bishyizwe imbere.

Mu gutsimbataza uruhererekane rw’umugambi wazanye Gacaca, Leta ya FPR yadukanye indi gahunda yise ‘’Ndi Umunyarwanda’’. Iyi gahunda yari igenewe urubyiruko rw’Abahutu bashishikarizwaga gusaba imbababazi z’ibyaha ngo byakozwe n’ababyeyi babo. Ibi bigakorwa kubera ko batashoboraga gukuriranwaho icyaha cya jenoside yabaye bataravuka.

Muri iyi minsi, Leta ya FPR iri kugerageza gusobanura ko iri kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside yasabitse abana b’Abahutu, ni ukuvuga abo bose bagerageje kwamagana jenoside yakozwe na FPR.

Abahohotewe bari guhindanywa bitwa abagome mu mugambi mubisha ugamije guhishira ukuri kuri jenoside yakorewe Abahutu hitwajwe ko bari kurwanya ihakana rya jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Kuyipiganisha n’indi jenoside

Ibi biratuganisha ku bundi buryo jenoside ihakanwa kandi butari  umwihariko wa jenoside yakorewe Abahutu.

Ni uburyo bwo guhakana icyaha cy’ubugome hitwajwe ko hari ikindi byabereye rimwe cyangwa cyakibanjirije bityo bigasa n’aho byari ngombwa ko iyo jenoside yindi ibaho.

Twagiye twumva imvugo ngo “jenoside yahorewe indi” yakoreshwaga na bamwe kugira ngo bumvikanishe impamvu bakoze jenoside yakorewe Abahutu nyuma y’iyakorewe Abatutsi. Ibi byari mu rwego rwo gukomorera FPR, yo yakoreye jenoside Abahutu.

Ibi byaravugwaga cyane mu itangazamakuru mu minsi yashize aho abantu benshi byabagoraga kwemera jenoside yakorewe Abahutu hitwajwe gusa ko habaye jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda kandi ikabera rimwe n’iyo yakorewe Abahutu.

Ibiri amambu,  hari urubyiruko rw’Abanyarwanda ruterwa ishema  no kwambara ku mugaragaro  udupira twanditseho inyandiko zihakana jenoside yakorewe Abahutu, n’ubwo urwo rubyiruko rubiterwa n’ubujiji. Izi nyandiko ziba zemeza ko habayeho jenoside imwe mu Rwanda, ikaba ari  iyakorewe Abatutsi, bishatse kuvuga ko  jenoside yakorewe Abahutu itabayeho.

Kwishyiramo igitekerezo cyo guhakana icyaha cya jenoside yakorewe gice kimwe kubera gusa ko igice ubarizwamo na cyo cyayikorewe ni ukwibeshya cyane .Ibi ni nko kwitwerera umwihariko w’amakuba.

Abasirikare ba ONU bahagaze hejuru y’imirambo y’Abahutu bari bahungiye i Kibeho mu kwezi kwa Gashyantare 1995.

Koko rero, jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ni icyaha cy’ubugome gitandukanye n’icyakorewe Abatutsi, bityo kimwe nticyafatwa nk’impamvu yo kuba harakozwe ikindi, nta n’ubwo cyatuma ikindi cyirengagizwa.

Iyakorewe Abatutsi, yakozwe muri rusange n’abiswe muri rusange Interahamwe kuva mu kwezi kwa Mata kugeza mu kwa Nyakanga 1994, ikorerwa mu gice cyayoborwaga mu buryo bwemewe na Leta y’inzibacyuho.

Naho indi, ni iyakorewe Abahutu mu gihe kirekire kurushaho, ni ukuvuga kuva mu mpera z’ukwezi kwa Mutarama 1991 kugeza nibura mu 2003.

Iyi jenoside, yakorewe mu karere kanini kurushaho,  uhereye mu karere k’u Rwanda rwose bitewe n’igihe byabereye, nyuma ikomeza gukorerwa no mu gace gaherereye mu Majyaruguru ashyira mu Burasirazuba kugera mu Majyaruguru ashyira mu Burengerazuba bwa RepuburikaRepuburika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo.

Nyuma, hatewe indi ntambwe yerekeza ku bundi buryo bwo guhakana by’umwihariko   jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ariko bigaragara nta shiti ko bugayitse.

Ihakana mu ndorerwamo y’indi jenoside

Ihakana rya jenoside yakorewe Abahutu bigaragara ko rikorwa n’abayikoze, ni ukuvuga abayobozi bakuru ba FPR bari ku butegetsi i Kigali. Ibi, bigamije gucecekesha abantu bose bahirimbana kugirango jenoside yakorewe Abahutu yemezwe kandi abahohotewe bahabwe ubutabera. Icyo rero bari gukora, ni ukubashinja ko bahakana jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi.

Abahirimbana kugira ngo jenoside yakorewe Abahutu yemezwe kandi abayikoze bahanwe, bashinjwa nta shingiro ko ari ‘’abahakanyi’’ kuko ngo ari ‘’abayoboke b’indangabitekerezo ya jenoside ebyiri’’.

Nyamara mu by’ukuri, ntabwo byari bikwiye ko uhirimbanira ko jenoside ya kabiri yemezwa ari we wagombye gukekwaho kuyihakana ahubwo ibyo byagombye kubazwa uhakana imwe muri zo ku mugaragaro kandi akaba akidegembya.

Jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ntabwo rwose ifite inkomoko mu myumvire ntakuka cyangwa mu bikorwa by’abantu runaka, ahubwo ishingiye ku bikorwa biteye ubwoba na n’ubu bikomeje gukura umutima abiciwe mu gihe bari bakeneye kurenganurwa n’ubutabera.

Iyo gahunda y’icengezamatwara mu by’ukuri iteye urujijo kandi yendeye ku busa. Nyamara, ikwirakwizwa n’injijuke ndetse n’abanyepolitiki baba i Bulayi n’ubwo muri iki gihe usanga ari abantu bari mu rwego ruciriritse.

Muri make, gufata ku mugaragaro umurongo w’ihakana ari nako ushinja undi wo utemera, ko ahakana ibyo wowe wemera, ni ukugusha ishyano.

Ibi byavuzwe haruguru ntibisobanura ko nta mwanya wo kubijyaho impaka cyangwa ko ntawabihakana igihe cyose atigiza nkana. Bityo, ntibigomba kumvikana ko jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ari ihame ntakuka ridashobora kugibwaho impaka.

Buri wese afite uburenganzira bwo kutwereka ukuntu biriya bimenyetso bibiri bigize icyaha cya jenoside yakorewe Abahutu byaba bituzuye.

Mu by’ukuri, buri icyaha cy’ubugome, icyo ari cyo cyose, kirangwa buri teka n’ibintu bidafatika n’ibindi bifatika, ni ukuvuga   kuba uwakoze icyaha yarabyijemeje ku bushake bwe bwuzuzwa n’ibikorwa nyir’izina.

Ku bireba icyaha cya jenoside, by’umwihariko ikorewe itsinda rishingiye ku bwenegihugu cyangwa ku bwoko, ubushake buvugwa mu ngingo ya 2 y’Amasezerano ahana kandi agakumira icyaha cya jenoside yo kuwa 09 Ukuboza 1948 ni ubwo gutsemba itsinda ryose cyangwa igice cyaryo, kandi ubu bushake ntibushidikanywaho ku bijyanye n’iki kibazo.

Ibyo bishingiye ku byabaye no ku byo ba nyir’ubwite bivugira usibye ko mu kwibeshya kwabo bumva ko batakoze jenoside kubera ko batashakaga gutsemba Abahutu bose  ahubwo igice cya bamwe muri bo.

Ibikorwa bya ngombwa na byo biratondagurwa muri iyo ngingo bikaba bimwe muri byo bigizwe n’ibikorwa nk’ibyo guhotora abagize iryo tsinda, ibyo kubakomeretsa bikomeye cyangwa gushyira ubuzima bw’itsinda mu kaga hagamijwe kubatsimba bose cyangwa igice cy’abarigize.

Ibyo bikorwa birivugira ku bireba iki kibazo, ni na yo mpamvu yonyine ituma hemezwa ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe Abahutu bo mu Rwanda.

Kubyerekana ukundi ntibishoboka rwose. Gahunda y’icengezamatwara no gutera ubwoba abayikorewe imaze gufata indi intera.Umwihariko utangaje wo guhakana iyi jenoside yakorewe Abahutu,ni uko ariyo jenoside yonyine ihakanwa n’abayikorewe ubwabo kugeza aho bamwe muri bo banga kwemeza ko ibyabakorewe ari jenoside.

Si ugucurama ubwenge cyangwa kuba ari ikimenyetso cy’uko baba barahanzweho, ahubwo ni ingaruka zo kudahana abakoze iyi jenoside zituma abayirokotse bahakana ubwabo ibyaha by’ubugome bakorewe, kugira ngo baramuke. Ibi babikora mu rwego rwo gucacura abayikoze kuko bakibafiteho ububasha bwo kubica cyangwa kubakiza.

Guhakana byafashe indi intera ndende irangwa ni uko bamwe mu bahohotewe bacyeza muri iyi minsi ubutegetsi bwa FPR i Kigali bakaba bahatirwa kwikorera ku mugaragaro umusaraba wa FPR nk’abayobozi bayo bityo bakihamya mu izina ryabo ibyaha bakorewe.

Igiteye inkeke si ukumvisha abandi iyi jenoside ahubwo ni ukuyumvisha Abanyarwanda ubwabo, Abahutu n’Abatutsi uhereye ku Bahutu bayikorewe bagomba gutanga ubuhamya ku mugaragaro aho kuba ibikange kubera ubwoba.

Kuyimeza mu buryo bw’inzigamyo

Ni kangahe tutagiye twumva abantu bavuga babikuye ku mutima ko igihe cyose hari urukiko ruzemeza ko ibyabaye ari jenoside yakorewe Abahutu ni bwo bizemezwa gutyo kandi ko ari gutyo bizaba bigaragarira buri wese.

Nyamara, ibi byendeye ku busa kuko kugira ngo icyaha cy’ubugome kibeho kandi cyemezwe gutyo ntabwo bisaba ko byemezwa n’urukiko.

Ahubwo kuba kugeza ubu nta rukiko na rumwe rwigeze rukurikirana ibyo byaha by’ubugome biteye isoni inyoko muntu aho iva ikagera.

Patrice Rudatinya MBONYUMUTWA

www.jambonews.net

Nyiri iyi nyandiko ni Umunyarwanda wavutse 1975.Ni umutangabuhamya w’amateka ya vuba y’igihugu cye wakomeje kuyakurikirana bya hafi ku giti cye  kuva mu buto bwe.Yari mu Rwanda kuwa 06 Mata 1994 na nyuma mu byumweru byakurikiye. Ahamya akomeje ko iyi nyandiko ari umusaruro ushingiye ku isesengura ryimbitse  nyuma y’imyaka 23 yamaze yitabiri ibiganiro mpaka ndetse  anaganira n’abahohotewe barimo Abahutu n’Abatutsi.Yasomye ibitabo birenga 230 hatibagiwe ibihumbi by’inyandiko ni ukuvuga mu by’ukuri ibintu byose by’ingenzi byanditswe, birebana n’u Rwanda mbere na nyuma ya 1994, n’abanditsi batandukanye.Ni umwunganizi mu by’amategeko akaba kandi n’umwarimu wigisha ibijyanye n’amategeko ahana muri Kaminuza.


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