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Reka tugaruke ku iraswa ry’indege ryagushije u Rwanda mu kaga

Reka tugaruke ku iraswa ry’indege ryagushije u Rwanda mu kaga

Tariki ya 6 Mata 1994, mu ma saa mbiri n’igice (20h30) z’umugoroba wa joro, indege yari itwaye perezida w’u Rwanda Juvénal Habyarimana, mugenzi we perezida w’u Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira, n’abandi bategetsi 7 bo mu nzego zo hejuru mu bihugu byombi u Rwanda n’u Burundi tutibagiwe n’abafaransa batatu bari abakozi bo mu ndege, yarashwe yitegura kugwa ku kibuga cy’indege cya Kigali. 

Mu minota mike gusa yakurikiye icyo gikorwa, u Rwanda rwahise rugwa mu makuba ateye ubwoba, ku buryo mu minsi 100 gusa, igihugu cyakorewemo ubwicanyi buteye ubwoba bwahitanye abanyarwanda barenga miliyoni, amakuba yaje kwambuka imipaka agakwira akarere kose k’ibiyaga bigari, na n’ubu ingaruka zayo zikaba zikiri zose. 

Mu myaka icumi yakurikiyeho, amamiliyoni y’abaturage bo mu bihugu bitandukanye, urugero nk’abanyeKongo, abarundi, n’abanyarwanda bahuye n’ingaruka z’amakimbirane menshi yakururutse avuye mu buryo butaziguye cyangwa buziguye ku byabaye mu Rwanda. 

Imyaka 28 nyuma y’icyo gikorwa cy’iterabwoba cyo guhanura indege ya perezida, n’ubwo hashyizweho Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha ngo rugaragaze ukuri ku byabaye mu Rwanda mu mwaka wa 1994, haracyari urujijo n’impaka ku barashe iyo ndege. 

Muri iyi nyandiko, Afriquela1ère ifatanyije na Jambonews turabagezaho ibintu bikomeye bizwi byaranze iyo dosiye y’iraswa ry’indege yabaye imbarutso yahungabanyije amahoro yo mu Karere kose k’ibiyaga bigari bya Afurika.

Umwuka wari uhari icyo gihe

Kuva tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 u Rwanda rwaratewe intambara irarota, ingabo z’u Rwanda, Inzirabwoba (FAR), zitana mu mitwe n’inyeshyamba zo mu mutwe wa (FPR) Inkotanyi.

Muri ibyo bihe byo kuva ku ya 1 Ukwakira 1990 kugeza kuya  6 mata 1994, u Rwanda rwabaye isibaniro ry’ibyaha bikomeye aho abanyepolitike batandukanye bo mu gihugu imbere bagiye bicwa, hakorwa ibyaha by’intambara ndetse n’ibindi byaha bibangamira uburenganzira mpuzamahanga bw’ikiremwamuntu(nk’ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu hamwe n’ibyaha bya jenoside) cyane cyane byakorewe abaturage bo mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda (aba Hutu babaga mu majyaruguru,hamwe na bamwe mu batutsi nk’abagogwe,ubwoko bw’abatutsi nyamuke babaga mu majyaruguru batsembwe hafi ya bose).[1]

Ubwo bwicanyi bw’abaturage bo mu majyaruguru y’igihugu bwatumye abaturage baho bahunga ku bwinshi bata ingo zabo bahungira mu tundi duce tw’igihugu, ku buryo byageze ku itariki ya 6 mata 1994, mu gihugu imbere hari impunzi zigera kuri miliyoni zataye ingo zazo, ni ukuvuga umunyarwanda umwe kuri barindwi, inyinshi muri izi mpunzi zikaba zarabaga mu nkambi ya Nyacyonga mu nkengero za Kigali.

Ni muri icyo gihe kandi, ibiganiro hagati y’abarwanaga bashaka uko bahagarika intambara yicaga abaturage b’abasivili benshi cyane, ibiganiro byo gushaka amahoro arambye, hitabwa cyane cyane ku nyungu z’umuturage, byari byaratangiye muri Tanzaniya, ibiganiro byageze ku masezerano yaje gushyirwaho imikono ku itariki ya 4 kanama 1993.

Ni muri uwo mwuka utameze neza,ku itariki ya 6 mata 1994 hafi mu ma saa mbiri n’iguce z’ijoro(20h30),ubwo yari akubutse i Dar es Salam mu kwiga uko ya masezerano y’amahoro yasinywe yashyirwa mu bikorwa (amasezerano yiswe aya Arusha),indege yari itwaye perezida w’u Rwanda Juvénal Habyarimana na mugenzi we perezida w’u Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira n’abandi bategetsi bakuru bo mu nzego nkuru z’u Rwanda n’u Burundi  nka Jenerali Déogratias Nsabimana, umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda,yarashwe ubwo yiteguraga kugwa ku kibuga cy’indege cya Kigali.Indege yarashwanyaguritse ibice byayo bigwa mu rugo neza neza rwa perezida w’u Rwanda,umuhungu wa perezida ariwe Jean-Luc,abirebesha amaso.

Byari byifashe bite mu duce twagenzurwaga n’Ingabo z’igihugu (les FAR)

Kuva muri iryo joro ryo ku ya 6 rishyira iya 7 mata 1994,hahise hashyirwaho za bariyeri mu mihanda hafi ya yose mu duce twose twagenzurwaga n’ingabo z’igihugu z’icyo gihe,kandi kuva mu gitondo cy’iya 7 mata,abanyepolitike benshi batavugaga rumwe na leta yariho batangiye kwicwa,twavuga Madamu Agathe Uwilingiyimana wari minisitiri w’intebe,n’ubwo yari arinzwe n’abasirikare b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye icumi bakomoka mu Bubiligi.Abo basirikare b’ababiligi bambuwe intwaro,bajyanywa mu kigo cya gisirikare cyari hafi aho nuko muri icyo gitondo nyine baza kwicwa n’abasirikare b’u Rwanda bari barakomerekeye ku rugamba,bashinja abo babiligi kurasa indege ya perezida. Abandi banyepolitike batavugaga rumwe na leta yariho, abenshi bakaba bari abo mu bwoko bw’aba Hutu nabo barishwe muri icyo gitondo cyo kuya 7 mata 1994 bicwa n’abasirikare n’ingabo zo mu mutwe warindaga perezida w’icyo gihe « abajepe ». Muri bo, twavuga nka bwana Fréderic Nzamurambaho, wari Minisitiri w’Ubuhinzi,wicanywe n’urugo rwe rwose[1], hari na Faustin Rucogoza, wari Minisitiri w’Itangazamakuru,na Joseph Kavaruganda, wari Perezida w’Urikiko rushinzwe kurinda Itegeko nshinga, hakaba kandi na bwana Landouald Ndasingwa wari uzwi ku kazina ka « Lando », wicanywe n’umugore we w’umuzungukazi ukomoka muri Canada arii we Hélène Pinsky n’abana babo babiri umwe w’imyaka 15 n’undi w’imyaka 17.

Muri icyo gitondo kandi mu duce twagenzurwaga n’ingabo z’u Rwanda rw’icyo gihe abasivili benshi b’ababiligi bishwe,harimo nka Paul Van Vynckt, wishwe « nyuma yo kugenzura pasiporo ye » na madamu Annie Roland,umugore wa Jean Huss Mugwaneza, umucuruzi w’umuTutsi,abo bombi bakaba barishwe rubi n’abasirikare bakabicanya n’abagize imiryango yabo bagera ku icumi bari mu rugo rwabo aho bari batuye ku Kicukiro (Kigali) muri icyo gitondo nyir’izina.[2] Mu bana babo bari bahari uwo munsi,harokotsemo umusore umwe w’umumetisi wari ufite imyaka 17, warokotse mu buryo busa n’igitangaza,kuko umuryango wose wari uhari barawishe.

Uko gutangira kwica abaturage basanzwe byahise bifata intera mu buryo bwihuse cyane, twavuga nk’ubwicanyi bwabereye mu kigo cyitwa Centre Christus i Kigali, aho abapadiri nka Chrysologue Mahame, Patrick Gahizi, Innocent Rutagambwa, bo mu muryango w’abaYezuwiti biciwe n’abasirikare babatsinda mu kigo cyabo, Centre Christus. Bose hamwe bari 19 harimo abapadiri 5 ba diyoseze n’abakobwa ba Kiliziya 9 bishwe kuri iyo tariki ya  7 mata 1994 mu gitondo kare kare muri icyo kigo cyabo i Kigali.[3]

Buhoro buhoro, ubwicanyi bwakwiriye igihugu cyose mu makomini yose kandi bwahitanaga umuntu wese, wakekwagaho gato gusa (byaba ukuri cyangwa bitaba byo) kuba icyitso cya FPR Inkotanyi, ariko cyane cyane hakibandwa ku bo mu bwoko bw’aba Tutsi babaga imbere mu Rwanda hatarobanuwe igitsina cyangwa imyaka y’amavuko. Ng’uko uko jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yatangiye, ubwicanyi bwaje kurangira buhitaye hafi abatutsi 75% babaga mu gihugu imbere, abenshi bakaba barishwe batemwe n’imihoro n’izindi ntwaro gakondo.

Twakongeraho nanone ko ibihumbi amagana n’amagana y’aba Hutu nabo bishwe rumwe n’abatutsi, nabo bakekwaho kuba ibyitso bya FPR Inkotanyi, cyangwa bazira gusa ko batavugaga rumwe na leta yariho, abandi bazira gusa « kugira isura » y’aba tutsi, cyangwa nanone bakicwa bazira akarengane gasanzwe dore ko muri ibyo bihe uburenganzira bwose bw’ikiremwamuntu bwari bwahagaze, hakora gusa itegeko ry’ufashe ikirindi cy’umupanga.

Uko byari byifashe mu duce twagenzurwaga na FPR Inkotanyi

Kuva ijoro ryo ku ya  6 rishyira iya 7 mata, FPR yahise igaba ibitero simusiga mu Rwanda (ibyerekezo bitatu by’ibanze)[4]. Hari hari ibatayo (abasirikare hagati ya 600 na 3000)yari yarageze i Kigali mu rwego rwo gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, bahise basohoka mu mazu bari bacumbikiwemo muri CND nuko batangira kwica abahutu batagira ingano n’imiryango yabo bahereye mu gace ka Remera, hafi y’aho bari bari.[5]

Mu miryango y’abahutu batsembwe n’ingabo z’Inkotanyi ku ikubitiro mu masaha ya kare kare cyane [6], harimo nk’uwa bwana Marcel Munyangabe[7], wishwe mu gitondo cyo ku itariki ya 7 mata 1994 yicanwa n’umugore we na benshi mu bana be hamwe n’urugo rwa bwana Laurent Nubaha, komanda w’ikigo cya gisirikare cya camp Kigali, harimo umugore we n’abana be babiri bakiri bato bose bishwe ku ya 8 mata 1994. 

Ni muri ayo masaha ya kare cyane yakurikiye iraswa ry’indege, turacyari muri Remera,ubwo bwana Claudien Habarushaka, wahoze ari perefe wa Kigali yiciwe urubozo iwe mu rugo,mbere yo kujyanwa mu nzu yegereye stade Amahoro aho bamurangirije bamurashe amasasu nyayo .[8][9]

Buhoro buhoro, FPR yakomeje kwica urusorongo abandi basivili benshi cyane,bakagenda bica mu duce twose twagendaga tugwa mu maboko y’ingabo zabo,twavuga nk’ubwicanyi bwo muri komini Giti, izwiho kuba komini imwe rukumbi yo mu Rwanda itarigeze ibamo umututsi n’umwe wayiciwemo mu gihe cya jenoside[10].

912 : Umwanzuro w’ Ikimwaro

Mu mezi atatu yakurikiyeho, u Rwanda rwabaye isibaniro ritigeze ribaho kuva rwabaho, kandi « umuryango mpuzamahanga» urebera nyamara ayo mahanga ariyo yateraga akikiriza indirimbo ya « ntibizongera kubaho ukundi » nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose,none dore baricaye barebera ubugome buteye ubwoba bwabaga mu Rwanda nyamara hatabuze uburyo bwose bwo guhagarika ayo mahano . 

Mu minsi 100 gusa, imibare yo kugenekereza y’abanyarwanda bishwe igera kuri miliyoni n’ibihumbi 100,hakubiyemo abatutsi 600 000  ni ukuvuga bitatu bya kane by’abatutsi babaga mu gihugu, abahutu 500 000 ni ukuvuga kimwe cya cumi cy’aba hutu babaga mu gihugu [11] tutibagiwe n’abatwa 10 000,ni ukuvuga kimwe cya gatatu cy’abatwa babaga mu Rwanda muri uwo mwaka wa 1994[12].

Umuryango w’Abibumbye iyo ubishaka wari guhagarika ubwo bwicanyi mu rwego rwo kubahirisha amasezerano y’amahoro ya Arusha, kubera ko uwo Muryango wari waramaze kohereza ingabo mu Butumwa bwawo bwo gufasha u Rwanda, umutwe wiswe MINUAR wari ufite abasirikare batojwe bagera ku 2500, uwo mubare ukaba wari munini rwose urebye ubuso bw’u Rwanda nk’igihugu gito, kandi iyo baba bake bari kohererezwa abandi byihuse cyane.

Aho kubikora, ahubwo ku itariki ya 16 mata igihe ubwicanyi bwari bugeze habi cyane, Ububiligi ubusanzwe bwahoraga bwivanga mu bibazo by’u Rwanda kuva mu ntangiriro y’ikinyejana cya 20, bwahise busaba ingabo zabwo kuzinga utwangushye ku bushake bwabo, batabisabwe n’abanyarwanda, maze abasirikare babwo bagera kuri 780 barataha, nyuma y’iyicwa ry’abasirikare babwo icumi bari mu butumwa bw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye. 

Hagati aho mu ibanga, Ububiligi bwasunikiye Umuryango w’abibumbye ONU gutora umwanzuro w’Ikimwaro (umwanzuro No 912) wo kugabanya umubare w’ingabo za MINUAR wari mu Rwanda ukava ku 2500 hagasigara 270 gusa nyamara ubwicanyi bwari bugikomeje batangiye no kubuha izina rya jenoside kubera ukwibasira cyane cyane ubwoko bw’aba tutsi[13],ibyo byatumye abanyarwanda baterereranywa byuzuye n’isi yose.

Tariki ya 4 nyakanga 1994, umurwa mukuru Kigali wafashwe na FPR Inkotanyi bituma abaturage barenga miliyoni 2 bo mu bwoko bw’aba Hutu bahunga igihugu (ni ukuvuga umunyarwanda umwe kuri batatu) bahunga ubwicanyi bwa FPR Inkotanyi bahungira muri Zaïre igihugu gituranyi, ibyo bituma habaho ikibazo gishya cyahungabanyije uburenganzira bwa muntu hamwe n’ituze ry’akarere kose, ingaruka zabyo zikaba kugeza uyu munsi zikiri.

Kuri iyi tariki ya  6 mata 20 22,hakaba hashize imyaka 25 yuzuye neza indege yari itwaye perezida irashwe,nta bucamanza na bumwe ku isi cyangwa igihugu kirafata inshingano yo gushakisha bya nyabyo abakoze icyo cyaha cy’iterabwoba cyo kurasaiyo ndege yabaye imbarutso y’ubwicanyi na jenoside,cyangwa ngo hashakishwe abatanze itegeko ryo kurasa iyo ndege, igikorwa cyatumye Akarere Kose k’Ibiyaga Bigari kamara imyaka igera mu icumi gakorerwamo ubwicanyi ndengakamere, ibyaha byo mu ntambara,ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu na za jenoside.

Afriquela1ère ifatanyije na Jambonews birabibutsa uko iyo dosiye yasuzumwe, ibyagiye bihishurwa ku bihereranye n’abakekwa bose, kugeza uyu munsi.

Abaketswe mu iperereza rya mbere, basanze atari bo:[14]

Kuva mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994, hatangiye kwigwa ku bantu bose bakekwaho kurasa iyo ndege, iperereza ryakozwe n’abahanga banyuranye, basunitswe n’ibihugu bya rutura, inzego z’ishinzwe iperereza z’ibihugu by’amahanga (cyane cyane Ububiligi n’Ubufaransa), hanasohoka inyandiko nyinshi cyane kuri iyo dosiye.

Mobutu niwe wacyetswe ku ikubitiro

Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1995 hari ibinyamakuru bibiri byo mu Bubiligi byazanye ingingo nshya ivuga ko bishoboka ko yaba ari Mobutu wahanuye iyo ndege, bishingiye ku nyandiko zavuye mu nzego z’iperereza rya gisirikare z’igihugu cy’Ububiligi zakozwe mu kwezi kwa kane 1994. Iyo ngingo ariko ntiyafashe, kuko byari ugukekeranya kudafite ishingiro, yahise iteshwa agaciro, ntiyanatinzweho.

Uburundi bwaraketswe

Nyuma yaho,u Burundi bwaketswe amababa.Impamvu yabiteye ni uko amezi atandatu nyuma y’igandagurwa rya perezida w’u Burundi Melchior Ndadaye[15], haketswe ko uwari ugambiriwe kwicwa ari perezida mushya wari umaze gutorwa mu Burundi,dore ko ari we wagombaga gukomeza ivugurura ry’igisirikare cy’u Burundi,ivugururwa ryari ryaratangijwe n’uwamubanjirije.Hagakekwa ko abarashe indege ari we bashakaga,aho kuba perezida Habyarimana.

 Iyo ngingo nayo ntiyamaze kabiri, kubera ko abasesenguzi bemeza ko perezida Ntaryamira yuriye iyo ndege bitari biteganyijwe, kandi abikora ku munota wa nyuma. Gupanga guhanura indege yarimo, biragaragara ko bitari gupangirwaho byihuse gutyo, kandi ku butaka bw’ikind gihugu.

Haketswe abacancuro cyangwa se abasirikare b’Ubufaransa

Indi ngingo yashyizwe ku meza y’iperereza ni iy’abacancuro cyangwa abasirikare b’Ubufaransa. Iyo ngingo yari ishingiye ku bintu « byahishuwe» na madamu Collette Braeckman mu gitabo cye yise « Rwanda, Histoire d’un génocide»(Amateka ya jenoside yo mu Rwanda).[16] Uwo munyamakurukazi,yanditse muri icyo gitabo cye ko igihe yari yicaye mu biro bye i Buruseli yakiriye « urwandiko rubi cyane rwanditswe ku rupapuro rw’utuzu,rwahinwe incuro umunani zose,rugasesekwa rwihishwa mu ibahasha y’ubutunzi bwinshi,ibahasha yari ifunzwe nabi » rwari ruzanywe « n’umuntu atavuze izina» rwanditsemo ko umuntu wiyita « Thaddée», akaba  « intagondwa yo mu ishyaka rya CDR» yiyemeje,amaze « gucibwa akaboko k’iburyo kandi akaba yarumvaga urupfu rumugera amajanja» kwandika urwo rwandiko kuko yari afite incuti « ebyiri z’Ababiligi», akaba atarifuzaga ko bazagerekwaho iyo dosiye y’iraswa ry’indege none akaba yifuje kuvuga ukuri kose. Muri urwo rwandiko, yemezaga ko indege yarashwe n’abantu bo mu ishyaka rya CDR, we ubwe hamwe n’abafaransa babiri ngo bari bafite intego yo « kugerageza » Umuryango w’Abibumbye (ONU) no « gukongeza ubwicanyi bukomeye ».

Haketswe abataravugaga rumwe na Leta, bo mu majyepfo

Indi ngingo yizweho ni iy’abataravugaga rumwe na Leta yariho icyo gihe, bakomoka mu Nduga, mu majyepfo. Ni ngombwa kubibutsa ko uretse amakimbirane ashingiye ku bwoko yariho mu Rwanda, u Rwanda rw’icyo gihe rwari rufite andi makimbirane ashingiye ku turere, hagati y’aba Hutu ubwabo, hagati y’aba Hutu bo mu Majaruguru (aba Kiga) ari nabo perezida Habyarimana yavukagamo, n’aba Hutu bo mu Majyepfo (abanye Nduga). 

Abo mu Majyepfo ntibishimiraga kuvangurwa kuko bashinjaga leta yariho icyo gihe gutonesha abakomoka aho perezida akomoka, cyane cyane aba Hutu bo mu majyaruguru y’igihugu. 

Mu ntangiriro ya Mata 1994,hakwirakwijwe ibihuha bivuga ko abanyepolitike bakomoka mu Majyepfo bashaka gukora coup d’Etat (gutembagaza ubutegetsi),ibyo bihuha bikaba byarakwirakwijwe n’iradiyo yitwaga RTLM-Radiyo Televiziyo Yigenga mu Gihugu cy’Imisozi Igihumbi(Radio Television Libre des Milles Collines),igihuha cyahutereye nyuma y’inama madamu Agathe Uwilingiyimana yatumije ku ya 4 mata 1994,inama yakoranye n’abasirikare n’abanyepolitike bakomoka mu Majyepfo, bikavugwa ko muri iyo nama, yaba yaravuzemo amagambo agaragaza ko arambiwe Habyarimana kandi ko yifuza ko avaho.
Indege yarashwe hari uwo mwuka utoroshye w’urwikekwe rwa coup d’Etat yakekwaga gutegurwa n’abo bayobozi. Niyo mpamvu amasaha make gusa iyo ndege ikiraswa, abenshi muri abo bayobozi bari muri iyo nama bahise bicwa, hafi ya bose bicwa n’abasirikare bo mu mutwe warindaga perezida.
Iyi ngingo yo kubakekaho kurasa indege ya perezida ntiyafashe, kuko bitumvikana ukuntu abategetsi basanzwe bo mu nzego za gisivili n’abasirikare bamwe na bamwe bo mu nzego zo hejuru mu gihugu, bari basanzwe bazi neza umwuka mubi wari mu gihugu icyo gihe, batari banashoboye kwirindira umutekano wabo bwite, bari gupanga kurasa indege ya perezida, nta buryo n’ubushobozi bwagaragajwe bari bafite bwo kubigeraho.

Haketswe Ababiligi

Mu gupereza hanaketswe Ababiligi.Kubakeka kandi nibyo byatumye hicwa abasirikare icumi b’Ababiligi bari mu butumwa bw’amahoro bw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mu Rwanda itariki ya 7 Mata 1994. 

Dushingiye kuri iyi ngingo, ngo baba ari abasirikare b’Ababiligi barashe indege y’Umukuru w’igihugu babikoreye umutwe wa FPR. Iyo nkuru yakwirakwijwe n’uko ikipe ya Liyetona Lotin, umusirikare mukuru wari ushinzwe kurinda Minisitiri w’Intebe madamu Agathe Uwilingiyimana tariki ya 7 mata,ngo yaba yaragaragaye muri Pariki y’Akagera ku itariki ya 6 mata 1994 ari kumwe n’abofisiye bakuru bo mu nyeshyamba za FPR kandi ko muri uwo mugoroba nyirizina  ijipi ya MINUAR iriho imbunda ya mitrailleuse ishobora kuba yarahanahanaga amakuru n’ijipi ya Liyetona Lotin yaba yaragaragaye hafi y’ahakekwaho kurasirwa missiles zahanuye indege ya perezida.

Kanda hano hasi wumve ubuhamya Abdallah Rucahaga yatanze ejo bundi kuri ulurabyo TV aho yivugira ko yabyiboneye n’amaso ye.

Ibi bigashimangirwa kandi ni uko, Jenerali Dallaire yaje kubwira Kolonel Marchal ko yibuka ko yabaze imirambo y’abasirikare bo mu butumwa bw’Umuryango w’abibumbye bari bari mu nzu y’uburuhukiro bw’imirambo (muri morgue) akabona abari hagati ya 11 na 13. 

Kubwa Koloneri Luc Marchal, ari nawe wari komanda w’izo ngabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye muri Kigali, hari imirambo icumi, kuba imibare y’abo Jenerali Dallaire yabonye muri morgue isaga icumi abona byaratewe n’imimerere yayibazemo itari yoroshye.[17]

N’ubwo koko hari impamvu zidasobanutse z’imyitwarire idasobanutse kandi kugeza ubu hakaba hatarasobanuwe icyo ikipe ya Liyetona Lotin yakoraga mu ishyamba ry’Akagera uwo munsi – Komisiyo y’Inteko ishinga Amategeko y’Ububiligi yari ishinzwe gusesengura icyo abo basirikare babwo bakoraga mu Akagera ntiyashoboye kubona ibisobanuro by’urwo rugendo rutatangiwe ikibari (uruhushya) cya gisirikare n’abamukuriye muri uwo mwuka utari mwiza icyo gihe, nuko ihitamo kubyoroshya itanga umwanzuro nawo udasobanutse w’uko bishoboka ko iyo kipe ya Liyetona Lotin yari « yagiye kwitemberera muri Pariki aho kuba yari mu kazi ka gisirikare » – byaciriye aho,kuko nta rundi rwego cyangwa urukiko rwakomeje kubikurikirana kubera ko,habuze ibimenyetso bifatika kandi bihagije baheraho.

Dore ingingo z’abaketswe, zo zigahama

Mu byaketswe byose harimo ingingo ebyiri zateje impaka nyinshi cyane kandi na n’ubu zigihamye, ari zo, ku ruhande rumwe hakekwa abahezanguni bo muri leta ya MRND, ku rundi ruhande hagakekwa abahezanguni bo mu mutwe wa FPR Inkotanyi.

Abahezanguni bo muri Leta ya kera

Dushingiye ku bemera iyo ngingo,bavuga ko ngo abanyamuryango bo mu kiswe « Akazu »,batihanganiraga abo batavuga rumwe, bakaba ari abantu bake bo hafi ya perezida Habyarimana biganjemo abo mu muryango wa madamu wa perezida bakuriwe na Koloneri  Bagosora bari bararakajwe n’ibyo perezida Habyarimana yemereye FPR Inkotanyi mu masezerano ya Arusha (urugero nko kuvanga ingabo za FPR mu ngabo z’igihugu no kunganya imyanya y’ubuyobozi bwa gisirikare ku buryo bungana 50-50) n’imyanya bari gutakaza, ngo baba bariyemeje gutegura « imperuka» mu rwego rwo kubuza ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ayo masezerano.Bavuga ko ngo baba barahise bategura gutsembatsemba abatutsi bose bari mu gihugu, ariko ngo kugira ngo bigerweho,bagombaga kubanza kwikiza perezida wabo Habyarimana hamwe na Jenerali Déogratias Nsabimana bari kubangamira imigambi mibisha yabo.

Ibi kandi bigashimangirwa n’uko itangazamakuru ry’abahezanguni ryari ryegamiye ku butegetsi bw’icyo gihe, urugero RTLM na Kangura, ryari ryarahanuye iyicwa rya perezida Habyarimana. Urugero, muri werurwe 1994, ikinyamakuru Kangura cyayoborwaga n’Umwanditsi mukuru witwaga Hassan Ngeze, cyanditse inkuru ifite umutwe uvuga ngo « Habyarimana azapfa muri werurwe 1994. »[18]

Ibi kandi bishimangirwa n’uko kuva tariki ya 6 mata ku mugoroba hari hamaze gushyirwaho za bariyeri mu mugi wa Kigali kandi abanyepolitike batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bagatangira kwicwa umwe ku wundi mu gitondo cya kare kare ku itariki ya  7 mata.[19] Ibi bikemezwa nanone n’uko ubwicanyi bwo gutsembatsemba abaturage basanzwe (baba abaTutsi n’aba Hutu bakekwagaho gusa gato kuba ibyitso bya FPR Inkotanyi byaba ukuri cyangwa bitari ukuri ndetse n’abasa n’aba tutsi ku isura) bwahise butangira mu gihe gito cyane bukagenda bukwira mu makomini yose y’igihugu (uretse ikomini imwe gusa,Giti,itaragezemo ubwo bwicanyi).

Icya nyuma gishimangira ibi, ni iyicwa rya ba basirikare icumi b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye bakomoka mu Bubiligi bishwe ako kanya tariki ya 7 mata. Kubica bikaba bishobora kuba byari bigendereye gutuma MINUAR ibabisa ikagenda kugira ngo batsembatsembe abantu nta we ubahagaze hejuru.

Abahezanguni bo muri FPR Inkotanyi

Abandi bo, babona abakoze ishyano ryo kurasa indege y’Umukuru w’igihugu badashobora kuba abo mu butegetsi bwe, ko ahubwo ari abo mu mutwe w’abahezanguni bo muri FPR bayobowe ku isonga na Jenerali Kagame.

Impamvu bamwe bemeza ko ari bo, ni uko abo bahezanguni batigeze na rimwe bemera bya nyabyo amasezerano ya Arusha yateganyaga ko nyuma y’inzibacyuho, hazabaho amatora asesuye mu Rwanda. 

Kuri bo, FPR Inkotanyi yari yanzwe na benshi mu banyarwanda b’imbere mu gihugu, nta mahirwe yari kuzagira yo gutsinda amatora bibaho bityo kugira ngo bacakire ubutegetsi neza, inzira yonyine yashobokaga yari ugutsinda intambara kubera gutinya demukarasi n’amatora.

Ababihamya banongeraho ko bitari no kuba bihagije kuri FPR gufata ubutegetsi, bagombaga no kubugundira. 

Niho hava indi mpamvu ya kabiri yo gushinja FPR Inkotanyi kwica perezida Habyarimana kuko,bisa nk’ibyari biteguye neza,nyuma yo kumwica,bwakeye ibitero binini kandi bigari ku gihugu bihita bikorwa n’Inkotanyi, mu rwego rwo gufata ubutegetsi bwose ku ngufu, hatitawe ku ngaruka byari kugira ku batutsi b’imbere mu gihugu,ni ukuvuga kubatsembatsemba dore ko kuva na kera na kare mu Mateka y’u  Rwanda,iyo hagiraga igitero cy’impunzi z’abatutsi giturutse muri Uganda, abahababariraga ni abaturage basanzwe bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi bari mu gihugu imbere.Ibyo bari babizi neza.
Abemeza ko ari FPR yakoze amahano, bavuga ko Paul Kagame na bagenzi be, n’ubwo nabo bari impunzi z’aba tutsi, bari bazi neza ingaruka zari kuba ku batutsi bo mu gihugu imbere, ndetse banifuzaga ko bicwa ku bwinshi, banohereza abacengezi mu nterahamwe bo kuzitera akanyabugabo ko kwica benshi bashoboka  « mu rwego rwo guhungabanya cyane umutekano w’igihugu», ibintu byahitaga bivugwa kuri  radiyo Muhabura, yari radiyo ya FPR Inkotanyi nk’uko byemezwa na bamwe mu bahoze muri izo ngabo.

Abemeza ibi, bavuga ko intego nyamukuru ya FPR yo guteza akavuyo n’akaduruvayo mu gihugu hose  yari iyo kubasha gufata ubutegetsi bwose ku ngufu za gisirikare ibanje gusiga icyasha leta barwanaga nayo, bakayigereka byose ku gatwe. 

Icyari kigamijwe ni ukwanduza cyane isura y’ubutegetsi bwariho nuko FPR Inkotanyi ikaza yitwa ko ije « kubohora » abaturage no guhagarika jenoside yari irimo ikorerwa abatutsi, nuko igakomerwa amashyi kandi ikemerwa mu muryango mpuzamahanga.
Ibi kandi binshimangirwa n’uko, ku bihereranye n’imibare y’abasirikare n’ibikoresho bikenerwa ku rugamba, ari ibintu « bidashoboka na mba » kubona ikintu nka kiriya « kibaye utabizi » ni ukuvuga iraswa ry’indege yari itwaye perezida, nuko amasaha make ugahita upanga urugamba rwo gufata igihugu cyose,mu mpande nyinshi icyarimwe,ibintu bisaba ko uba warateguye hakiri kare abasirikare ibihumbi byinshi,n’imyiteguro(imipango) inonosoye yizweho igihe kinini.[20]

Nanone gukekwa kwa FPR guhanura iriya ndege bishimangirwa n’uko, kuva mu kwezi kwa mata 1994 FPR ubwayo yitambitse gahunda zose zo kohereza abasirikare b’amahanga bo kuza kubungabunga amahoro ndetse FPR ubwayo itegeka abasirikare b’amahanga bari bakiri mu gihugu guhita bazinga cyangwa bagafatwa nk’umwanzi ubarwanya.[21]

Nyamara iyo haza abasirikare b’amahanga bari kubungabunga umutekano bakanabuza cyangwa bagahagarika ubwicanyi, kandi bagasaba impande zombi zarwanaga kuguma mu birindiro byazo zarimo mbere y’ihanurwa ry’indege. 

Bigeze ku itariki ya 30 mata 1994, FPR yakoresheje ubutiriganya i New York kugira ngo umwanzuro wari wafashwe na ONU wo kohereza vuba na bwangu izindi ngabo zizaba zishinzwe guhagarika ubwicanyi bwari bugikorwa uburizwemo.[22]

Mu bakekwa bose, uwaba yarabikoze wese, kwica abaperezida babiri bakiri mu kazi kabo si « akantu gato gusa » kabaye mu Mateka ya jenoside, ahubwo ni ikintu gikomeye cyane cyadufasha twese kumenya neza ibyari byihishe muri ayo makuba yatugwiririye.

Iri raswa ry’indege ariko ntirisobanura na mba cyangwa ngo rigabanye uruhare rwagizwe n’uwo ari we wese witwaje ibyabaye akagira uruhare mu bwicanyi cyangwa agashishikariza abandi kwica inzirakarengane, ibintu uwabikoze wese akwiriye kuryozwa mu bu butabera nyabwo.

Nk’uko umwe mu barokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi witwa Esthér Mujawayo,wanashinze umuryango « Avega- agahozo » akanandika igitabo yise « survivantes/abagore bacitse ku icumu» n’ikindi cyitwa « ce qu’on oublie toujours /Ibyibagiranye » yabivuze,  iraswa ry’iriya ndege « ryabaye imbarutso y’urupfu rw’abantu bagera kuri miliyoni (…) uriyumvisha umubare w’abantu bahindutse abicanyi kubera iyo ndege, ibi nabyo ndabyibaza nti,ni abantu bangahe bahinduwe abicanyi, abantu babwirwaga ngo « mubice muhorere perezida wanyu, », « mumuhorere» nk’aho atari perezida wanjye nanjye,(…) yari perezida wanjye nanjye erega, keretse niba batemera ko abatutsi bari abaturage b’u Rwanda nk’abandi, none se ni gute uza guhorera perezida wanjye nanjye unyica kubera we kandi nanjye yari perezida wanjye wishwe ? »[23]

Amaperereza yakozwe :

Iperereza rya mbere ry’Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda (TPIR) : « habayeho ubufasha bwa leta y’amahanga »

Tariki ya 8 ugushyingo 1994, nyuma y’amahano yari amaze guhitana abanyarwanda basaga miliyoni mu minsi 100 gusa, ONU, yatoye umwanzuro nimero  955 ushyiraho Urukiko mpanabyaha mpuzamahanga rwahawe inshingano yo gucira urubanza « abantu bose bakekwaho uruhare mu bikorwa bya jenoside cyangwa ibindi byaha bikomeye byahungabanyije uburenganzira mpuzamahanga bw’ikiremwamuntu byakorewe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda hamwe n’abatura Rwanda bose bakekwaho uruhare muri ibyo bikorwa  cyangwa ibyaha byakorewe ku butaka bw’Ibihugu bituranye n’u Rwanda byabaye kuva ku itariki ya 1 mutarama kugeza ku itariki ya  31  ukuboza 1994 .»

Mu gihe itageze ku myaka ibiri nyuma yaho, hagati ya tariki 6 mata 1996 n’iya 1 gicurasi 1997, itsinda ry’abakora iperereza ry’urukiko TPIR riyobowe n’umugenzacyaha wo muri Ositarariya bwana Michael Hourigan ryoherejwe mu Rwanda na Madamu Louise Arbour, wari Umushinjacyaha Mukuru w’Urukiko rwa TPIR, kujya gukora iperereza ku byaha byakekwaga kuri Koloneri Bagosora. 

Urukiko rwa TPIR rwari ruri kwitegura guca urubanza rwa Koloneri Bagosora wavugwaga hose ko yaba ari we wahanuye iriya ndege hanyuma iryo tsinda risabwa kwegeranya ibimenyetso byose bishoboka kuri icyi kirego, ibimenyetso byari gukenerwa mu rubanza. 

Nyamara kandi, amakuru yose iryo tsinda ryabonye igihe ryari mu kazi mu Rwanda ryahishuye ko atari Bagosora warashe indege. Basanze ibimenyetso bifata abatakekwaga. 

Iryo tsinda ry’abakora iperereza ryahuye imbonankubone n’abantu batatu bo mu butegetsi bushya bwa gisirikare biyemereye ko bari bamwe mu bagize « Umutwe/Network » w’aba komando kabuhariwe barashe indege ya perezida Habyarimana bongeraho ko « bayihanuye ku bufasha bahawe na leta y’igihugu cy’amahanga. » 

 Ayo makuru avuye ku isoko nyayo yashinjaga Jenerali Kagame ko ari we ubwe watanze itegeko ryo kurasa iyo ndege nuko batanga ibisobanuro birambuye by’uko babigenje, ibisobanuro batanze birimo « amazina, amapeti, n’uruhare rwa buri musirikare wese wabigizemo uruhare. »[24] 

Abo basirikare bose uko ari batatu bemeye ko bafite ibimenyetso bifatika by’ibyo bavugaga ndetse babiri muri bo bavuga ko biteguye gukorana n’urukiko rwa TPIR « niba umutekano wabo uzacungwa bihagije ».

Michael Hourigan yabimenyesheje madamu Louise Arbour mu ibanga rikomeye ndetse atanga ibyavuye muri iryo perereza byose abyohereza yicaye muri ambasade ya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika i Kigali hanyuma asaba urukiko rw’i La Haye kubisuzuma.

Madamu Louise Arbour kuri telefoni byaramurenze « biramushimisha cyane » kubera ko ayo makuru « yahuzaga neza neza n’andi makuru y’iperereza ryakozwe n’uwitwa Alison Des Forges yari amaze icyumweru kimwe ahawe »[25].

Mu cyumweru cyakurikiyeho, uwo wari mu iperereza yahamagawe n’abayobozi bo mu rwego rwo hejuru mu Muryago w’Abibumbye i Kigali, bamumenyesha ko agomba gusubira ku Cyicaro gikuru cy’Urukiko rwa TPIY i La Haye kubonana amaso ku yandi na madamu Louise Arbour ngo bavugane kuri iryo perereza ry’iyo dosiye y’ihanurwa ry’indege. 

Igihe yateguraga urugendo rwo gusubirayo, nibwo yamenye ko Kofi Annan, wari Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Ku isi ari we ubwe watanze amabwiriza ategeka ko ava mu Rwanda.

Akigera i la Haye, uyu mukozi wo mu rwego rwo hejuru mu iperereza ry’Urukiko yabonanye na madamu Louise Arbour, maze akubitwa n’inkuba abonye ukuntu uyu Mushinjacyaha Mukuru yahindutse, « akamwuka inabi » kandi akamubwira ibintu bicurikiranye.

Madamu Louise Arbour yabwiye uyu munya Ositarariya wakoraga iri perereza ritoroshye ko ibyo kumenya uwahanuye indege bitari mu kazi k’Urukiko rwa TPIR nyamara ari we ubwe wari waramwohereje kujya muri iryo perereza kandi ingingo ya 4 ya sitati zishyiraho urukiko rwa TPIR ivuga yeruye icyo gikorwa ikacyita « igikorwa cy’iterabwoba » ndetse mu nshingano z’Urukiko rwa TPIR harimo kuburanisha ibikorwa byose byabaye mu matariki arimo n’itariki y’ihanurwa ry’iriya ndege. 

Uyu wari ukuriye iri perereza ntiyariye iminwa ahubwo yagarutse kuri zo ngingo yerekana ukuvuguruzanya gukomeye, ndetse yibutsa uyu Mushinjacyaha Mukuru ko bavuganye kenshi gashoboka kuri iri perereza, kandi ko nta na rimwe yigeze avuga ko gushakisha uwarashe indege yabaye imbarutso ya jenoside bitari mu nshingano z’Urukiko rwa TPIR. Yanamubwiye impungenge afite ku batangabuhamya bemeye ko bagize uruhare mu guhanura iriya ndege, abo yise « abagabo b’intwari » avuga ko « bakwiriye kurindirwa umutekano n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ». 

 Louise Arbour yarushijeho « kugira ubukana » nuko uyu mukozi w’iperereza ry’Urukiko ategekwa kuziba, gusubiza amadosiye y’aho iperereza rigeze anahabwa itegeko ryo kutazongera na rimwe kuvuga kuri iyo dosiye. Nyuma y’aho, uyu mukozi w’iperereza ryo mu Rukiko w’intwari yakomeje kwamagana incuro nyinshi ibi bintu byabaye yiboneye n’amaso ye.[26] 

Urukiko rwa TPIR rwaje gukora iperereza rya kabiri : « habaye inama eshatu zo kubitegura »

Muri ibyo bihe byose by’urukururano, bigeze ku itariki ya 9 mutarama 1997, rwa rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashiriweho u Rwanda (TPIR) rwatangiye kuburanisha urubanza rwa mbere rw’abakekwaho gukora jenoside, uwa mbere waburanishijwe ni bwana Jean Paul Akayesu, wahoze ari burugumesitiri wa komini Taba, akaba kandi ari na we wa mbere wakatiwe n’urwo rukiko ahamijwe icyaha cya jenoside ku itariki ya 2 ukwakira 1998.
N’ubwo abakozi b’iperereza mu rukiko rwa TPIR bibandaga mbere ya byose ku bahoze mu bushorishori bwa leta ishinjwa gukora jenoside, bageze ubwo nabo bibarenga igihe bageraga ku makuru ahamya ibyaha bikomeye umutwe wa FPR Inkotanyi wakoze mu bihe jenoside yabaga.

Ariko bamaze kubona ko amaperereza ku byaha byakozwe n’Inkotanyi aremereye cyane kurusha uko babyibwiraga, cyane cyane nyuma y’aho bategetswe guhagarika iperereza ku wahanuye indege yari itwaye perezida ari nayo ntandaro ya jenoside, bakabitegekwa bivuye mu buyobozi bukuru bw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye kwa bwana Koffi Annan, wari Umunyamabanaga mukuru wa ONU, byatumye abakozi bo mu iperereza ry’urwo rukiko bigengesera cyane kandi bagakora mu ibanga rikomeye.

Itsinda rishya ry’abakozi b’iperereza ry’Urwo rukiko ryashyizweho mu kwezi kwa kabiri muri 1999 i Kigali, rikuriwe n’Umushinjacyaha mukuru wungirije wa TPIR bwana Bernard Muna, abitegeswe n’umuyobozi we madame Louise Arbour.Kubera ko iryo tsinda ryakoraga gusa iperereza ku byaha byakorewe abatutsi muri jenoside yabakorewe (kandi cyane cyane rikibanda ku ruhare rwa buri mutegetsi wo mu nzego zo hejuru muri leta ya kera), byatumye bisanga cyane mu gihugu nuko bitwikiriye ako kazi kabo,banakora iperereza ryo mu rwego rwo hejuru ku byaha byakozwe na FPR Inkotanyi,babikora mu ibanga rikomeye ku buryo « nta wundi wamenyaga iryo perereza ririmo gukorwa uretse gusa abayobozi bakuru b’urwo rwego »[27].

Iryo tsinda ni ryo ryegeranyije ibimenyetso byose, ribibika neza, ibimenyetso byahishuye ko burya FPR Inkotanyi yoherezaga « abacengezi babo mu nterahamwe» abasirikare b’Inkotanyi bahawe akazina k’« abatekinisiye » umutwe w’abicanyi kabombo wahawe izina ry’ibanga ryiswe « CDR-commandos » ryari rishinzwe kujya gufatanya n’abandi kuri za bariyeri urugero nk’iya Gatenga (Gikondo-Kigali) kandi bahabwa ubutumwa busobanutse neza ko « bagomba kwica abatutsi no gutera akanyabugabo interahamwe ngo zice abatutsi benshi kurushaho »[28]

Abenshi muri abo « batekinisiye » bavuzwe amazina mu maperereza yakozwe n’intasi z’urukiko rwa TPIR. 

Iryo tsinda kandi ryabashije kubarura ahantu hose h’ibanze ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi ziciye aba Hutu batagira ingano muri ibyo bihe, ibintu basanze ari ubwicanyi buteye ubwoba, bw’agahomamunwa.[29]

N’ubwo bari barabujijwe kubikurikirana mu rukiko, abagize iryo tsinda ry’abakozi b’iperereza b’urukiko rwa TPIR « ntibari kubura » kwakira ubuhamya bwose n’amakuru yose yerekeye ya dosiye y’uwahanuye indege ya perezida ku itariki ya 6 mata 1994. Iryo tsinda ryageze ku mwanzuro udashidikanywaho w’uko ari FPR Inkotanyi yateguye uwo mugambi ikanawushyira mu bikorwa ndetse iperereza ryatunze agatoki abantu benshi bapanze kuzarasa indege ya perezida bakanabishyira mu bikorwa, muri abo harimo Jenerali Paul kagame na Koloneli Kayumba Nyamwasa abo bombi bakaba « barayoboye inama eshatu zacuriwemo umugambi w’igikorwa cyo kuzahanura iyo ndege »[30]

Imyanzuro y’iryo perereza ryuzuye neza wamenyeshejwe urukiko rwa TPIR ku itariki ya 1 z’ukwakira 2003 mu nyandiko ndende (document) y’ibanga rikomeye cyane, ibanga ryaje kumenyekana bwa mbere mu kwezi kwa mata 2018 rishyizwe hanze n’umunyamakuru kazi w’inkuru z’iperereza ukomoka muri Canada witwa Judi Rever warimenewe mu rwego rw’inkuru z’abashyira hanze amabanga y’abakoresha babo zizwi ku zina rya lanceuse d’alerte (whistleblower). 

Mu kwakira 2018, iyo nyandiko yuzuye y’iperereza yaje gutangazwa uko yakabaye mu kinyamakuru cyitwa Marianne, ku buryo ubu uyishaka wese yayibona byoroshye. 

Iyo nyandiko y’iperereza yemezaga ko yashoboye kumenya amazina y’abatangabuhamya bagera 518 bari baremeye kuzashinja abahoze mu ngabo za APR-Inkotanyi, urukiko nirubakenera.

Tariki ya 11 kanama 1999, hashyizweho undi mushinjacyaha mukuru mu rukiko rwa TPIR, akaba ari umusuwisikazi madamu Carla Del Ponte.Yahise atangiza « amaperereza adasanzwe » yagombaga gukorwa ku bayobozi b’u Rwanda (bo muri FPR inkotanyi) bashya no kubakurikirana mu nkiko. Hahise havuka ibibazo bikomeye cyane hagati ye na Kigali, ibibazo byamukozeho, mu by’ukuri yaje gusezererwa ku kazi ke byitwa ko manda ye irangiye kandi ko itazigera yongerwa, yirukanwa muri 2003. Uwabikoze nta wundi utari bwana Kofi Annan, wakoreshwaga na Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, batashakaga uwo musuwisikazi wari uzanye ibakwe.[31]

Amerika nayo yaje gukekwa muri dosiye yo kuhanura iyo ndege « hahishuwe umugambi w’igihe kirekire wanashyizwe mu bikorwa »

Cya gihe abakozi b’iperereza ry’urukiko rwa TPIR bajyaga bwa mbere i Kigali gukora amaperereza anonosoye ku wahanuye indege, amakuru yose yegeranyijwe yamamyaga icyo cyaha umutwe wa FPR ariko hahishurwa ko « yafashijwe na leta y’igihugu cy’amahanga. »[32]

Izina ry’icyo gihugu cy’amahanga ntiryahise ritangazwa n’abakoraga iperereza ariko igihugu cya mbere cyaketswe amababa ni Leta Zunze Ubumwe Za Amerika, kubera imbaraga nyinshi icyo gihugu cyashyiragaho ngo kibuze ayo maperereza yo gushakisha uwahanuye indege gukomeza.

Undi kandi uhamya ko Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zishobora cyane kuba zari zibiri inyuma ni Luc Marchal, wategekagaaba ingabo z’Umuryango w’Abibumbye zakoreraga muri Kigali muri 1994, iyo yibutse uko ibintu byose byagiye bikurikiranana, ibyo yiboneye n’amaso ye, n’ibyo we ubwe yakoze mu minsi ya mbere ya mata 1994 mu Rwanda. Reka tubashyirire hano igisubizo yatanze uko cyakabaye mu magambo ye bwite ubwo yasubiza Christophe Vincelet.

« Ikibazo : Hari abemeza ko, mu byabaye icyo gihe mu Rwanda, Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zari zibyihishe inyuma byose. Mwe mubitekerezaho iki ?

Louis Marchal : Ubu nanjye niko mbibona rwose, kubera iyi mpamvu yoroshye kumva : ntibyumvikana na gato, ukuntu uyu munsi, nyuma y’imyaka icyenda iriya ndege irashwe, haba hataramenyekana uwayihanuye. Nyamara kandi, kurasa iriya ndege nibyo byakomye imbarutso y’ibyabaye byose. Uramutse uvuze ko yahanuwe n’abahezanguni bo mu bwoko bw’aba hutu nk’uko hari ababivuga, cyangwa ukemeranya n’abavuga ko ari F.P.R yayihanuye, ibisobanuro watanga wasanga binyuranye cyane. 

Ku bw’ibyo rero, ni ngombwa cyane kubanza kumenya uwateguye uriya mugambi. Ubu, byaratangiye buhoro buhoro, abantu batangiye gutinyuka.

 Hari amadosiye amwe n’amwe ari mu Rukiko rwa Arusha ariko usanga yibanda gusa ku bantu bo hasi, bategekwaga. 

Nyamara ndakubwiza ukuri, nta muntu n’umwe ugishidikanya ko ari Kagame ubwe wapanze kiriya gikorwa cyo guhanura iriya ndege. Nyamara aracyari perezida kandi ni Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zamushyizeho mu gakino kazo, ku mpamvu nyinshi, harimo n’iyatanzwe n’Abafaransa –impamvu nabonga idashinga muri icyo gihe – ariyo yo kwagura ibihugu bikoresha ururimi rw’icyongereza. Ariko ubu, birigaragaza. 

Afurika yo hagato yose yabaye icyongereza kandi ndakubwiza ukuri ko byigaragaza ko hariho umugambi muremure wa biriya bihugu bivuga icyongereza wo kwigarurira akarere kose ka Afurika yo hagati n’umutungo kamere wayo mwinshi.

Icyo ni kimwe mu tuntu twinshi tugize umugambi kandi abantu bake cyane nibo batinyuka kubivugaho beruye nyamara niyo ntangiriro y’iki kibazo. 

Ubu se wansobanurira gute ukuntu yaba Australie yaba na Nouvelle-Zélande batigeze bagira ambassade z’ibihugu byabo i Kigali ku bwa Habyarimana, nyamara FPR yatangaza ko intambara irangiye ku itariki ya 17 nyakanga 1994, bugacya igihugu cya Nouvelle-Zélande gifungura ambassade yacyo i Kigali ?


Ubu se wansobanurira gute ukuntu ngta gihugu na kimwe cyitaye ku busabe bwa Jenerali Dallaire bwasabaga kongererwa ingufu n’ingabo za MINUAR ?

Ubu se wasobanura gute ukuntu igisubizo cyanaye icyo kugabanya abasirikare bakava ku 2500 hagasigara 250 gusa muri biriya bihe ? Hakurikiyeho iki ? jenoside… Nuko hatorwa umwanzuro mushya wa ONU, hashyirwaho icyiswe MINUAR ya II ihabwa ingabo…… ziva muri Canada y’abavuga icyongereza, iziva muri Nouvelle Zélande, Australie hamwe n’ingabo z’abatoza bazo bavuye muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika !!! Biratangaje cyane !!! Erega ntibyapfye kwikora gutyo gusa. Uko bigaragara hari umugambi w’igihe kirekire wanashyizwe mu bikorwa. Uzi incuro ibyo byose nabiganiriyeho na Jenerali Dallaire ?![33]

Nta cyo twari kubikoraho ; ndumva nanjye narabaye igikinisho bakoreshaga uko bishakiye ntabizi. Hari ibintu byinshi byabaga ntashoboraga kwisobanurira. Twe kandi wibuke ko twari hariya tuyoborwa n’Umuryango mpuzamahanga. Nyamara kandi, badufataga nk’ibicucu gusa ! Batugize ibikoresho byabo ! 

Mu by’ukuri, bakoresheje ONU mu gusinziriza akarere kose, nuko umunsi umwe gusa, ikirunga kiraruka. 

Ubu se wasobanura gute ko ku itariki ya 8 mata, iminsi ibiri gusa nyuma y’ihanurwa ry’indege, ambassaderi wa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika yansanze iwanjye-nibutse ko nari ntuye muri metero 35 gusa uvuye ku icumbi rya ambassaderi- akaza kumbwira ati : « Tugiye gutwara abantu bacu bose ». Abanyamerika bari bagiye kuzinga utwangushye twose bakigendera ! Naramubwiye nti si ngombwa. Ansubiriramo ngo : « Turagiye ahubwo ! Kandi turaca iy’umuhanda ujya i Burundi ». Ndamubwira nti oya, oya, bishobora kubashyira mu kaga ariko arambwira ngo hari abasirikare bo mu mutwe udasanzwe w’Abanyamerika baryamije amajana, sinibuka umubare neza niba yarambwiye ngo bagera kuri 250 cyangwa 450 bo mu mutwe udasanzwe w’Abanyamerika baryamije amajanja (« Rangers ») – ngo bari i Bujumbura kandi biteguye kubatabara byihuse baramutse bagize ikibazo. Ubwo se wambwira gute ko byose byari biri tayari ku itariki ya 8 mata ? Byanze bikunze kurasa iriya ndege ya perezida bifitanye isano n’abo basirikare bo mu mutwe udasanzwe w’Abanyamerika bari barageze i Bujumbura mbere y’igihe.

Ibyo byose ni ibihamya, ni ibintu ugomba guterateranya bikakwereka ko ugomba kumenya ko iriya dosiye y’u Rwanda itoroshye. Erega hari byinshi bitavuzwe, kandi bikomeye byateje biriya byose byabaye. Kubyirengagiza rero, ni ugushaka koroshya ikibazo ariko n’ubundi biranga, kugera ku kuri ntibishoboka ubyirengagije. 

Nkubwije ukuri, buhoro buhoro abahanga mu bya siyansi, bazagenda basuzuma buri kantu kose, bizagenda gake gake, ariko mu myaka icumi,makumyabiri cyangwa mirongo itatu,iyi dosiye izasobanuka,maze ibyabaye mu Rwanda muri 1994 bijye ahagaragara. »

Ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa

Tariki 31 kamana 1997, Madamu Sylvie Minaberry, umukobwa wa Jean-Pierre Minaberry, wari umupilote wa kabiri wa ya ndege yarashwe akaba yari afite ubwenegihugu bw’Ubufaransa (n’abandi baozi bose bo mu ndege bari bafite ubwenegihugu bw’Ubufaransa), niwe wagiye gutanga ikirego mu rukiko rwa gisivili rw’i Paris akaba yarasabiraga ubutabera se wiciwe muri iyo ndege, asaba ko abo bicanyi aho bari hose bakurikiranwa. Abagize imiryango 11 y’abiciwe ababo muri iyo ndege bose (harimo abanyarwanda, abarundi n’abafaransa) nabo bisunze uwareze nabo batangana ikirego ngo bigendere hamwe.

Iyo dosiye itoroshye yahawe bwana Jean-Louis Bruguière, umwe mu bacamanza b’umwuga bakurikirana ibyaha bifitanye isano n’iterabwoba uzwi neza cyane mu Bufaransa, yungirizwa na juji Jean-François Ricard. 

Tariki ya 17 ugushyingo 2006, nyuma yo gusuzumana ubwitonzi iy dosiye n’abakekwa bose ukurikije ibyavugwaga, umucamanza yasomye imyanzuro y’inyigo yakozwe maze ahita asohora impapuro zo guta muri yombi abantu 9 bakomeye muri FPR harimo James Kabarebe (wari Umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda) na Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa (icyo gihe wari ambassaderi w’u Rwanda mu Buhinde) abo babiri nibo bari bari ku myanya ibiri ya mbere kuri urwo rutonde.

 Umucamanza yageze ku mwanzuro udashidikanywaho ko uwatanze itegeko ryo kurasa iyo ndege ari Jenerali Paul Kagame ubwe.Kagame ntiyashoboraga gukurikiranwa mu rukiko rwo mu Bufaransa kubera ubudahangarwa ahabwa n’umwanya ariho wo kuba ari umukuru w’igihugu uri mu kazi ke,ariko uwo mucamanza asaba urukiko rwa TPIR kumwikurikiranira kuko rwo amategeko arwemerera no gukurikirana abakuru b’ibihugu bari mu kazi kabo rutitaye kuri ibyo by’ubudahangarwa hashingiwe ku mategeko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha.[34]

Izo mpapuro zo kubata muri yombi zigisohorwa, Kigali yahise icana umubano wose ushingiye ku bubanyi n’amahanga n’Ubufaransa [35], yirukana ambassaderi w’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda kandi itegeka gufunga ako kanya ibikorwa byose Ubufaransa bwakoreraga mu Rwanda.

Nyuma y’amezi hafi  6 yakurikiye isohorwa ry’izo mpapuro zo kubata muri yombi,ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda butari bwarigeze na rimwe bwita kuri iyi dosiye yo gushaka uwaba yararashe iyi ndege yabaye imbarutso ya jenoside,dore ko ubutegetsi bwibona nk’uburinda abarokotse jenoside, noneho bwarakangutse bushyiraho icyiswe « Comité indépendant d’experts /Komisiyo yigenga y’abahanga » yahawe inshingano ngo yo guperereza  ku byabaye tariki ya 6 mata 1994.Raporo yasohowe n’iyo komisiyo,yaje guhabwa akazina ka raporo « Mutsinzi», yagaragaje imyanzuro yayo iyishyira ahabona tariki 11 mutarama 2010 maze yegeka icyo cyaha ku bari bagize icyitwaga « akazu» (ni ukuvuga abari hafi y’uwahoze ari perezida) nuko iyo raporo itanga izina rya koloneri Bagosora rimwita « umucurabwenge » w’icyo gikorwa cy’iterabwoba cyo guhanura indege ya perezida [36].

Ni muri iyo minsi kandi, Paul Kagame yahawe ikiganiro na televiziyo ya BBC y’Abongereza mu kiganiro iba gishyushye cyane cyitwa Hard Talk. Muri ya mvugo ye imenyerewe iyo yisobanura ku byaha aregwa akaba abyemera ariko adashaka kwerura, yasubije ibibazo by’umunyamakuru ati : « Nabaye impunzi hanze y’u Rwanda imyaka 30, nari mfite rero uburenganzira bwo kurwanira uburenganzira navukijwe (…) Ese ubundi iyo mfa njyewe muri iyo ntambara, uwo mucamanza ubu aba ari kubaza uwanyishe ?» nuko asobanura ko nta ho ahuriye n’iyo ndege. « Sinari umurinzi wa Habyarimana kandi rwose kuba yarapfuye ntacyo bimbwiye, (…) nari mfite uburenganzira bwo kurwanya iyo leta yangize impunzi iriya myaka yose, nagombaga kumurwanya none ngo uwo mucamanza aranshaka ngo abimbazeho ?»

Hakozwe inyigo y’abahanga b’Abafaransa mu by’ubumenyi bw’ibisasu (missiles) uko biraswa n’umuvuduko wabyo

N’ubwo byari ibicika mu bubanyi n’amahanga, muri politike, mu bitangazamakuru, bamwe bavuga ibi abandi biriya, hagamijwe gushakisha inzira zose zo gutesha agaciro anketi ya juji Bruguière, dosiye y’Ubufaransa yarakomeje kandi yemera ko abandi bacamanza babiri bashya ari bo juji Marc Trevidic na Nathalie Poux basimbuye juji Jean-Louis Bruguière na Jean-François Ricard bayikomeza hagamijwe gushakisha ukuri. Tariki ya 21 mata 2010, abo bacamanza babiri bafashe umwanzuro wo gukoresha inyigo y’abahanga b’Abafaransa mu by’ubumenyi bw’ibisasu (missiles) uko biraswa n’umuvuduko wabyo, inyigo yari ifite ntego yo kuzagenda bakagera aharasiwe iyo ndege, nuko bahagera kuva tariki ya 11 kugera kuya 18 nzeri 2010.

Muri ibyo byose ariko,leta ya Kigali yangiye imiryango y’abiciwe ababo muri iyo ndege,baba abo mu Rwanda cyangwa mu Burundi kuhakandagira,muri yo,twavuga  nk’umuryango wa Habyarimana,nyamara uretse kuba bariciwe umubyeyi,ni n’abatangabuhamya babyiboneye n’amaso yabo,mu gihe kubuzwa kugera ahari gukorerwa izo nyigo z’abahanga binyuranye n’amahame y’ubucamanza asaba ko kugira ngo izo nyigo zikorwe neza mu mucyo no mu butabera bwa bose hagomba kubaho inyigo ebyri cyangwa nyinshi zikavuguruzanya,hakazavamo umwanzuro utabogamye,ubwo rero abo bireba bose bagombaga kuba bahari cyangwa bahagarariwe .
N’ubwo bwose ayo mahame y’ibanze yahonyowe, iyo nyigo yarakomeje kandi ikintu gikomeye yari igamije kwari ukwemeza aho misile zahanuye indege.
Ku itariki ya 10 mutarama 2012, mu cyumba cy’Urukiko rwisumbuye rw’i Paris, nyuma y’imyaka hafi ibiri y’akazi kakorwaga kuri iki kibazo, ba bahanga batanze imyanzuro yabo ku byerekeranye n’iraswa rya ya ndege. Mbega ngo Umusozi urabyara imbeba !! Bakubise igihwereye bagira bati « Utuntu twose twagiye duterateranya duhuriza ku nyigo zatugejeje ku hantu dukeka ko hashobora kuba ari ho harasiwe ziriya misile zahanuye indege, aho dukeka cyane hashoboka ni i KANOMBE.

Kuba dukeka aho hantu ha kabiri ntibisobanura ko izo misile zishobora kuba zaranarasiwe ahandi hatari aho, wenda mu muzenguruko munini wegeranye n’aho tuvuze. 

Tunemeza kandi ko bishoboka ko uwo muzenguruko munini wagutse kurushaho waba ugana mu guce cy’iburasirazuba n’ahagana mu majyepfo, nko muri za metero ijana cyangwa zisaga, bipfa kuba gusa byarasabaga ko babona ahantu hisanzuye herekera mu muhanda w’indege igendera hasi, nabyo birashoboka ».[37]

Imirimo yamaze imyaka ibiri ishingiye ku buhanga bwa siyansi y’ibisasu yarangiye ityo, abo bahanga bari bafite mu nshingano zabo kwerekana neza aho abarashe indege bari bari, ntacyo bagezeho na mba uretse gusa kuvuga ibintu « byo gukekeranya gusa » bakanatinyuka bakongeramo ngo « izo misile zishobora kuba zaranarasiwe ahandi hatari aho, wenda mu muzenguruko munini wegeranye n’aho tuvuze. » mbese nta hantu bemeje hahamye. 

Ikindi kandi « aho handi hashoboka hose » hashobora kuba hararasiwe izo misile hari haravuzwe n’ubundi mu buhamya bw’abaganga docteur Pasuch na Daubresse, abaganga babiri ba gisirikare b’Ababiligi batanze ubuhamya bwabo bakusanyije kuva mu kwezi kwa mata 1994, ubuhamya bwaje gusuzumwa. 

Muri ubwo buhamya bwabo bwakusanyijwe rugikubita nyuma gato y’ihanurwa ry’indege ya perezida havuzwe neza neza ko ibisasu byaturutse « mu cyerekezo cya Masaka » cyangwa ku « musozi wa Masaka », nyamara abo bahanga barahirengagije bafunga amaso bashingiye ku majwi yamaze guhindurwa yakorewe mu Bufaransa akozwe n’umuhanga mu gukurikirana amajwi y’ibusasu akamenya aho biturutse.[38]

I Kigali « bariruhukije »

Mu gihe ibyagezweho n’izo nyigo z’ubuhanga byagombaga gutegereza ko bihuzwa n’ibindi bimenyetso by’iriya dosiye, kandi byashoboraga no kujuririrwa, n’ubwo bitajuririwe, abacamanza bagombaga kuvuga bo uko babona ibyavuye muri izo nyigo ziswe iz’abahanga, mu gihe bitarakorwa, habaye ikiganiro n’itangazamakuru cyatumijwe n’abavoka baburanira abarega ari bo Léon Foster na Bernard Maingain maze barabyamagana bavuga ko « iryo tekinika rigomba guhagarara ». Ku rundi ruhande, i Kigali ho « bariruhukije» maze bavuga ko « iyo paji ihise » maze bemeza ko ibizava muri iyo raporo bizaba byemeza burundu ibyavuzwe.

Ibitangazamakuru byinshi bikoresha ururimi rw’igifaransa byateye intero imwe na FPR maze barandika koko, imitwe y’inkuru ziteye urujijo. Ikinyamakuru  Libération cyo cyaranakabije cyitwa ibyo byavuye muri izo nyigo ngo ni ukuri « kudashidikanywaho »  mu nkuru yabo y’uwo munsi, maze cyongeraho ko iyo raporo «itumuye nyuma y’imyaka 18 ibyavugwaga n’abapfobya»,Ikinyamakuru Le Monde cyo cyaranabihuhuye maze kigira kiti « Abantu ba Kagame bagizwe abere » nuko ikitwa le Figaro cyo kiti «ukuri kurashize kujya ahagaragara ».[39]
Muri icyo gihe cyose ariko,iperereza ryo ryarakomezaga nk’ibisanzwe kuko iyi raporo yari gusa agatambwe kamwe mu ri byinshi byagombaga gukorwa  kandi kugeza ubwo abahoze mu bushorishori mu bakada ba FPR n’abahoze ari abasirikare bo biyemereraga ko bagize uruhare mu itegurwa ry’ihanurwa ry’iriya ndege bakanabitangaza mu binyamakuru cyangwa mu nkiko z’Ubufaransa bashinja FPR bahozemo kuba ariyo yahanuye indege ya perezida.

Amwe mu mabanga yahishuwe akarikoroza, harimo ayamenwe na bwana Théogène Rudasingwa wahoze ari umunyamabanga mukuru wa FPR akaba n’Umuyobozi mukuru w’ibiro bya Paul Kagame, muri iki gihe akaba aba mu buhungiro muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, aho ku itariki ya 1 ukwakira 2011, yasohoye inyandiko yo « kwicuza » yanyujije ku rukuta rwe rwa facebook aho yagize ati « ukuri ugomba kuvugwa. Paul kagame, wari umugaba w’ingabo za APR, umutwe w’ingabo z’umuryango wa FPR Inkotanyi, niwe ku giti cye watanze itegeko ryo kurasa iriya ndege. Muri nyakanga 1994, Paul Kagame ubwe yarabinyibwiriye » maze yongeraho ati « ndabyicuza cyane » nuko asaba imbabazi imiryango y’abiciwe ababo mu izina « ry’ubufatanyacyaha rusange /responsabilité collective ».   Thèogene Rudasingwa kandi nyuma yaho yabisobanuriyr ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa.

Andi mabanga akomeye yavuzwe cyane akarya amatwi y’ab’i Kigali ni ibyahishuwe na Patrick Karegeya, wahoze ari umukuru w’inzego z’ubutasi bwo hanze y’u Rwanda akaba yarabonwaga nk’umuntu wa hafi cyane, incuti magara ya Paul Kagame. Muri Nyakanga 2013, yavugiye kuri radiyo RFI, ashinja FPR ku mugaragaro ko ari yo yahanuye indege ndetse anavuga ko ibyo avuga abifitiye « gihamya » kandi ko yiteguye kubiha ubutabera, ati niba abacamanza b’Abafaransa babishaka banyegera, yongera ho ati « tuzababwira ibyo tuzi byose. Ariko ntitwabahatira kubyakira, nibo bagomba kutwegera. »[40] 

Bigeze ku itariki ya 1 Mutarama 2014, hatarashira amezi atandatu atanze icyo kiganiro kuri radiyo, umurambo wa Patrick Karegeya wasanzwe muri hôtel y’i Johannesburg bigaragara ko yishwe anizwe. 

Ku itariki ya 12 mutarama 2014, iminsi mike nyuma yo kwicwa kwa Karegeya, Paul Kagame yigambye hejuru ya nyakwigendera Patrick Karegeya, mu masengesho yo gusabira igihugu umugisha, maze agira ati « umuntu wese ugambanira igihugu cyangwa utwifuriza inabi, ntazabikira. Ni ikibazo cy’igihe gusa, no kumenya uko ubigerageje azarangizwa, naho ubundi n’ukiriho, ntazabikira. »[41]

Mu bandi batanze ubuhamya bushinja Inkotanyi, harimo koloneri Kayumba Nyamwasa nawe ubwe warezwe kandi washakishwaga n’umucamanza Bruguière kubera uruhare rukomeye akekwaho mu iraswa ry’iriya ndege.

 Mu biganiro byinshi yatanze ku mugaragaro, Kayumba yemeje ko FPR ariyo yahanuye indege ariko we yikura mu bateguye icyo gitero cyahiyanuye. Yanavuze kenshi ko yiteguye gukorana n’ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa uri iyo dosiye.[42]

Kuva muri Kamena 2010, Kayumba Nyamwasa uyu yagabweho ibitero simusiga bigamije kumwicira muri Afurika y’Epfo, yabwiye ikinyamakuru MO ko ahigishwa uruhindu ngo yicwe kubera ko « Kagame azi neza ko nintanga ubuhamya banjye mu nkiko mushinja azahamwa n’ibyaha. Niyo mpamvu ashaka kutwica. »[43]

Hari abandi benshi bahoze ari abanyamuryango b’imena ba FPR, twavuga nka Jean Marie Micombero we uniyemerera ko « yari mu nama yateguye kurasa iriya ndege »[44] cyangwa nka James Munyandida, uvuga yemeza ko we ubwe yari mu bantu 10 barindaga ibisasu bya missiles byakoreshejwe mu kuyihanura, ko ari no mu babipakiye, mbere y’uko bigezwa aho byarasiwe. Abo bombi nabo batanze ubuhamya bwabo mu bucamanza bw’Ubufaransa.

Muri Nyakanga 2014, izina Emile Gafirita, umusore ukiri muto winjiye ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi mu myaka ya za 90 mu basirikare ba kadogo naryo ryavuzwe muri iyo dosiye.Uyu we yari no mu barindaga Paul Kagame[45],ubuhamya yifuzaga guha ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa « bwashoboraga wenda gufasha mu kwihutisha iryo perereza » nk’uko bivugwa n’abahanga benshi.[46] Byari biteganyijwe ko ajya mu Bufaransa gutanga ubuhamya bushinja uwo yarindaga,ariko umucamanza Trevidic akora ikosa avuga izina rye kandi akiri i Nairobi.Ku itariki ya 13 ugushyingo 2014, buri bucye ajya i Paris kandi nyuma y’iminsi mike Maître Léon Lev Foster, umwavoka uburanira abahoze mu gisirikare cya APR ari nabo bashinjwa atanze izina rye ariha abo aburanira, Emile Gafirita yashimutiwe mu muhanda ku manywa y’ihangu mu murwa mukuru wa Kenya.[47] Kugeza ubu, ntawe uzi irengero rye.[48]

Mu Kwakira 2016, ba bacamanza bashya bakurikiranaga iyi dosiye batangaje ko bifuza kuyibyutsa no guhata ibibazo Kayumba Nyamwasa.Byabaye no gukoza agati mu ntozi, Paul Kagame yahise arakara kandi atangaza ko arongera guca umubano n’Ubufaransa [49] nuko birangira Koloneli Nyamwasa, umutangabuhamya w’ingenzi cyane atumviswe.

Umuryango w’ibihugu bikoresha igifaransa –La Francophonie

Mu mwaka wa 2017, Emmanuel Macron yohereje intumwa i Kigali ngo zibwire Paul Kagame ko yifuza ko madamu Louise Mushikiwabo, wari minisitri w’ububanyi n’amahanga w’u Rwanda, yagirwa umunyamabanga mukuru w’umuryango witwa la Francophonie (umuryango uhuza ibihugu bivuga igifaransa). Paul Kagame yabanje gusa n’ubyanga, ariko amaherezo aza kubyemera amaze kubaza Louise Mushikiwabo we ubwe icyo abitekerezaho, dore ko ngo nawe byamutunguye. 

Tariki ya 23 gicurasi 2018, Ibiro bya perezida w’Ubufaransa l’Elysée byatangarijwe ko umukandida wemeranyijweho « n’umugabane wa Afurika » ari Madamu Mushikiwabo, hari mu kiganiro Emmanuel Macron yagiranye n’itangazamakuru ari kumwe iruhande rwe na Paul Kagame.[50]


Ibi se hari aho bihuriye na dosiye y’indege ? Tariki 11 ukwakira 2018, i Erevan, ku munsi wa mbere w’inama ya Francophonie yagombaga kwemeza bidasubirwaho madamu Mushikiwabo nk’Umunyamabanga mukuru wayo, umushinjacyaha mu Bufaransa yasomye imyanzuro y’aho iperereza rigeze kuri iyo dosiye avuga ko basubitse ikirego bari baratangije kubera ko ngo « ibimenyetso bidahagije » ku buryo abaregwa bagezwa mu rukiko.[51]

Mu Kuboza 2018, abacamanza bigaga kuri icyo kibazo bemeranyije n’Ubushinjacya.[52] Abaregaga n’imiryango itegamiye kuri leta bajuririye uwo mwanzuro.

Vuba aha ku itariki ya 15 Gashyantare 2022, Urukiko rusesa imanza, ari na rwo rusumba izindi zose mu Bufaransa, rwanze ubujurire, nuko rwemeza ko iyo dosiye ishyingurwa burundu kubera ko ngo « ibimenyetso bidahagije » ku buryo abaregwa bagezwa mu rukiko ! 

Ubucamanza bwo mu gihugu cya Esipanye

Mu mwaka wa 2000, mu gihe amaperereza yatangizwaga mu Bufaransa, imiryango y’abihayimana n’abaharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu bo muri Esipanye biciwe ababo na FPR Inkotanyi batanze ikirego mu gihugu cyabo, igihugu kitigeze kigira uruhare urwo ari rwo rwose muri politike yo mu Rwanda. 

Iyo miryango yatanze ikirego yiyongereyo imiryango y’abanyarwanda biciwe na FPR babuze urukiko rwakumva akababaro kabo, nyamara hitwa ko ngo hari Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rwabashyiriweho (TPIR)rutabitayeho.

Iperereza ryahawe juji Fernando Andreu Merelles, nuko tariki ya 6 gashyantare 2008, rusohora impapuro 40 z’abantu 40 bahoze mu bushorishori bw’ingabo za APR Inkotanyi rugiye gukurikiranaho icyaha cya jenoside (baregwa gukorera abahutu jenoside), ibyaha byibasiye inyoko muntu n’ibyaha by’intambara.

Ku cyaha cyo kurasa indege yabaye imbarutso ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, bafashe imyanzuro nk’iy’abashinzwe iperereza bo mu rukiko rwa TPIR hamwe n’ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa, nuko icyo cyaha bacyongera ku rutonde rw’ibyaha biregwa bamwe muru abo basirikare. Umucamanza yemeje ko ari Paul Kagamewatanze itegeko ryo guhanura indege, ariko kimwe na juji Bruguière, nawe yavuze ko atamugeza mu rukiko kuko agifite ubudahangarwa buhabwa abakuru b’ibihugu.[53]

Amakuru yaturutse mu rwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe iperereza ry’Ubufaransa (DGSE)

Kuwa gatatu tariki ya  6 gashyantare 2019,  « Médiapart » na Radio France byasohoye amakuru yavuye muri DGSE, urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe iperereza ry’Ubufaransa amakuru yavugaga ko bishoboka ko « abahezanguni babiri bo muri Leta ya kera, aribo ba koloneli Théoneste Bagosora, wahoze ayobora ibiro bya minisistiri w’ingabo, na Laurent Serubuga, wahoze ari umugaba mukuru w’ingabo zahoze ari iz’u Rwanda (FAR),ari bo baba baratanze itegeko ryo kurasa indege yari itwaye perezida ku itariki ya  6 mata 1994. »

Ayo makuru yahise yirukira mu binyamakuru byose by’ingenzi mu bikoresha igifaransa maze bitangaza byose ko ayo makuru ari « ibyahishuwe ku binyoma by’Ubufaransa »[54] cyangwa ko ari « ibyahishuwe biteye ikimwaro »[55]  byerekana « neza » ko perezida Habyarimana yaba yarishwe n’abantu be bwite. Nuko ibinyamakuru bikomeye bikoresha igifaransa bivuga byeruye cyangwa mu buryo buziguye ko ayo makuru yaba ari ikimenyetso simusiga kivuye mu bubiko by’ishyinguranyandiko cyemeza ko ibyo abantu bibwiraga ku wahanuye iyi ndege kugeza ubwo atari ukuri.

Nyamara, iyo usomye iyi nyandiko iriho ayo makuru usanga ivuga ibintu bidahambaye kandi bizamura ibindi bibazo byinshi, binatuma hibazwa icyihishe inyuma y’uburyo ibitangazamakuru byayisesenguye.

Iyo nyandiko, yanditswe tariki 22 nzeri 1994 nk’uko umutwe wayo ubigaragaza, yari « ibyaketswe n’urwo rwego rw’iperereza ku ihanurwa ry’iy ndege ya perezida Habyarimana », ibyaketswe gusa nk’uko n’ubundi haketswe ibisaga icumi muri iyi dosiye yo kumenya icyabaye.[56]

Mu nteruro ya kabiri y’iyo nyandiko ya DGSE hasobanura impamvu bashingiyeho gukeka abo bavuzwe : « ubuhamya twahawe n’umutegetsi wo mu bwoko bw’aba Hutu batari intagondwa (personnalité hutu modérée) » iyo nyandiko itavuze izina, uwo muntu « akaba ari we waketse ko abakoloneri babiri aribo Bagosora na Serubuga baba ari bo batanze itegeko ryo kurasa iriya ndege yabo ku itariki ya 6 mata 1994 ».

Mu yandi magambo, iyo nyandiko y’igitangaza ishingira ku buhamya bwatanzwe n’umuntu umwe rudori, niyo ngo yaje gusisibiranya akazi kamaze imyaka 20 yose gakorwa n’iperereza ry’Ubucamanza bw’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, akazi k’ubucamanza bw’igihugu cy’u Bufaransa, n’akazi k’ubucamanza bw’igihugu cya Esipanye.

Ibikubiye muri iyo nyandiko nabyo ubwabyo biratangaje. Urugero,guhanura indege ya perezida tariki ya  6 mata 1994 ngo byaba byarateguwe n’agatsiko k’abantu ngo bari mu cyiswe  « réseau Zéro(akazu)» cyarimo koloneli  Elie Sagatwa, muramu wa perezida Habyarimana wiciwe muri iyo ndege tariki ya 6 mata 1994 cyangwa uwitwa Boniface Rucagu wibera i Kigali umugabo w’ikimenywabose kubera kwambara amashati yuzuyeho amafoto ya  Paul Kagame akagenda yemye n’ishema ryinshi atambagira nta cyo yikanga imihanda ya Kigali. Ubwo mbese twavuga ko umwe mu bateguye jenoside yidegembya ntacyo yikanga muri Kigali undi akaba yarahisemo kwiyahura ngo iyicwa rye ritangize jenoside ?

Kwicwa kw’abatangabuhamya babyiboneye kuva Kigali, Kampala, Nairobi, kugera Johannesburg 

Mu gihe cy’imyaka 28 ishize habaye imfu z’abantu benshi bakekwagaho kugira aho bahurira n’amakuru ya kiriya gikorwa cy’iterabwoba cyabaye cyo guhanura indege y’umukuru w’igihugu cy’u Rwanda, baricwa karahava haba mu gihugu imbere no mu hanze y’u Rwanda. Muri iyi nyandiko hari igice cyavuze ku batangabuhamya bashya aho twababwiye iyicwa rya Patrick Karegeya mu mugi wa Johannesburg tariki ya 31 ukuboza 2013 n’ishimutwa rya Emile Gafirita i Nairobi tariki ya 13 ugushyingo 2014.

Mbere y’abo ariko, abatangabuhamya bazi iby’iraswa ry’iriya ndege benshi barishwe karahava mu Rwanda imbere abandi babasanga mu mahanga. Bamwe muri bo twababwira ni nka Christophe Kayitare, umukozi w’umusivili wari ku munara ugenzura ingendo z’indege (tour de contrôle) ari nawe wababwiye ko indege ije. 

Intambara irangiye, yahembwe kwicwa « kugira ngo atazabahinduka akaba umutangabuhamya »[57], muri 1996, ni Théoneste Lizinde wahoze ari umuntu wa hafi ya Habyarimana mbere yo gushwana nawe no kwifatanya na FPR Inkotanyi, wiciwe i Nairobi muri 1996 kubera amakuru nyayo yari abitse ku iraswa ry’iriya ndege. Mu mwaka wa 2007, hishwe Eric Léandre Ndayire, wabanje gushimutitwa muri Uganda hashize imyaka ibiri atanze ubuhamya mu bucamanza bw’Ubufaransa ku by azi yiboneye ku iraswa ry’iriya ndege.[58]

Kuburirwa irengero kwa bwana Augustin Cyiza, perezida w’urukiko rusesa imanza akaba na visi perezida w’urukiko rw’ikirenga mu Rwanda kuva muri 1995 kugeza muri 1999 nabyo bishobora kuba bifitanye isano n’amakuru y’iraswa ry’iriya ndege.

Andre Guichaoua ari imbere y’ubucamanza bw’Ubufaransa, yatanze ubuhamya bwahuzaga neza neza n’ubw’abandi bakozi babiri bo mu rwego rw’ubucamanza bakoze iperereza ryabo, nka Augustin Cyiza watangiye iperereza mu mwaka w’i 1999 yise « ibintu binyuranye byaranze amahano yo mu Rwanda, amahano yarimo no kwica umukuru w’igihugu Habyarimana[59] »

Mu mwaka wa 2002, Augustin Cyiza yamenyesheje André Guichaoua ibyavuye mu iperereza rye, aho yanabashije kumenya neza neza uwakoze ku mbarutso n’urutoki rwe akarasisha imbunda missile yashwanyaguje indege yari itwaye perezida, avuga izina rye, nta wundi ni Liyetona Nziza.[60]

Amezi make nyuma yaho, hari ku itariki ya 23 mata 2013, mu gihe yari yatangiye kuvugana kuri iyo dosiye n’Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, Augustin Cyiza yashimutiwe ku cyapa cya Bus kiri ku muhanda wa Kimihurura-Remera mu mugi wa Kigali. Kuva ubwo, yaburiwe irengero.[61]

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  1. Niba ushaka gusobanuirwa byuzuye ibyaha bakozwe muri ibyo bihe, reba inyandiko igira iti « Rwanda : de quels crimes les Hutus et les Tutsis ont-ils été victimes » yasohotse tariki ya 3 ukwakira2017, http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20171003-rwanda-de-quels-crimes-les-hutus-et-les-tutsis-ont-ils-ete-victimes-2/
  2. Reba ubuhamya bwa Frédéric Nzamurambaho « Rwanda, 6 avril 1994 : les premières violences », bwanyuze kuri RFI tariki 6 avril 2014.  http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20140406-genocide-rwanda-6-avril-1994-premieres-violences-nzamurambaho
  3. Ababiligi bishwe muri jenoside yo mu Rwanda, DHnet du 30 mars 2014.
  4. Reba inyandiko « Diocésains parmi les personnes assassinées au Centre Christus à Kigali », portail catholique suisse yasohotse tariki 8 avril 1994, https://www.cath.ch/newsf/rwanda-trois-jesuites-rwandais-et-cinq-pretres-080494/
  5. Reba ubuhamya bwa Luc Marchal,komanda w’ingabo za MINUAR mu mugi wa  Kigali, http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20110108-rwanda-1994-le-point-de-vue-de-luc-marchal/
  6. Kuri iyi ngingo wasoma inyandiko ya F. Reyntjens,yise le Génocide des tutsis au Rwanda, Que sais-je, Presses Universitaires de France, p . 78.
  7. Reba ifoto ya madame Nadine Claire Kasinge umukobwa wiciwe papa we,mama we,musaza we n’abakobwa bava inda imwe batatu muri rya joro ryo ku itariki ya 6 rishyira iya 7 mata  1994 : http://www.musabyimana.net/20161127-qui-est-nadine-claire-kansinge-une-dame-qui-a-linstar-de-victoire-ingabire-veut-defier-le-president-paul-kagame/
  8. kanda hano usome  http://www.rwandavictimesoubliees.com/fr/victimes/munyangabe-marcel
  9. Amagambo ya madamu Vénantie Mukarwego ari mu musozo w’igitabo cy’umunyamakurukazi wo muri Kanada witwa Judi Rever  gifitwe umutwe uvuga ngo « In praise of blood, the crimes of the Rwandan Patriotic Front », Random House Canada, p. 233. Umupfakazi we yarambwiye ngo « Ntitwemerewe guhingutsa ko Claudien yishwe n’abasirikare ba FPR Inkotanyi ». Nta rukiko na rumwe rwiteguye gucira urubanza abamwishe. Ntitwari twemerewe no kubijyana mu nkiko gacaca, za nkiko z’abaturage zishingiye ku muco nyarwanda. Ntiwakwibeshya ngo ukore n’umuhango wo kumwibuka. Ntitwemerewe no kurira, habe ni gukora ikiriyo cy’urupfu rwe. Ntituzi n’icyo bakoresheje umurambo we, niba barawujugunye mu byobo rusange, niba yaratembanywe n’umuyaga ukamujyana he, cyangwa niba yarariwe n’imbwa. Uko twiyumva kose ntacyo bivuze. Tugomba gukomeza ubuzima busanzwe nk’aho nta cyabaye. Ariko oya, sinshobora kubyemera. »; Reba nanone  ubuhamya bwa Jean-Luc, umuhungu we mu ngingo ifite umutwe ugira uti « Les Bruxellois commémorent le génocide rwandais », Bruzz yo ku itariki ya  5 mata 2019, https://www.bruzz.be/fr/videoreeks/vrijdag-5-april-2019/video-les-bruxellois-commemorent-le-genocide-rwandais?fbclid=IwAR2tWo-DE3-h8i0xLVtAzEkAtADjQCRtaEw8IszFRKubSmneDhs8pyL0l70.
  10. Reba ingingo ivuga ngo «Komini Giti,nta jenoside yahabaye,ariko hakorewe amarorerwa yo kwihorera / Giti, à l’écart du génocide mais pas des représailles »,yasohotse mu kinyamakuru  Libération ku itariki ya 27 gashyantare  1996. https://www.liberation.fr/evenement/1996/02/27/giti-a-l-ecart-du-genocide-mais-pas-des-represailles_161805
  11. Soma inyandiko ya F. Reyntjens, “Imibare y’abantu bashobora juba barishwe mu Rwanda muri 1994 // Estimation du nombre de personnes tuées au Rwanda en 1994” http://www.ua.ac.be/objs/00110970.pdf.
  12. kanda hano https://minorityrights.org/minorities/twa-2/
  13. Shaka ingingo yavugaga ngo U Rwanda ruri gupfa,ONU igakurayo ingabo ikabasigira abasirikare 270 gusa // Le Rwanda meurt, l’ONU laisse 270 hommes ,mu kinyamakuru Lesoir kuva tariki 23 na 24 mata 1994.
  14. Niba wifuza ibisobanuro birenzeho ku byakekwaga byose uko byakabaye,shakisha muri interineti inyandiko ivuga ngo Assemblée nationale de la République française, Mission d’information sur le Rwanda, 1998  ainsi que Sénat de Belgique, Commission d’enquête parlementaire concernant les événements du Rwanda, 6 décembre 1997.
  15. kanda hano http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20111025-burundi-commemoration-du-18eme-anniversaire-de-l’assassinat-de-ndadaye/
  16. Paris, Fayard, 1994.
  17. Reba igitabo Christophe Vincelet,  « La mort des dix casques bleus belges à Kigali ou le belgocentrisme dans la crise rwandaise Editions », L’Harmattan Paris, 2004, hamwe n’ubuhamya bwa Koloneri Luc Marchal  « Entretien avec le colonel Luc Marchal, commandant du secteur Kigali de la MINUAR de 1993 à avril 1994, ancien Chef d’état-major du commandement Territorial Interforces »https://francegenocidetutsi.org/LucMarchalChristopheVincelet.pdf.
  18. Reba imyanzuro ya Cour d’appel de Paris, Parquet du Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, réquisitoire définitif aux fins de non-lieu, n° 2113/00/13, 11 octobre 2018, p. 30.
  19. Reba umugereka, « Premières heures dans les zones contrôlées par les FAR ».
  20. Kuri iyi ngingo wareba ubuhamya buri muri vidéo bwa Colonel Marchal mu mutwe uvuga ngo “Rwanda-1994 : Le point de vue de Luc Marchal », jambonews du 8 janvier 2011, http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20110108-rwanda-1994-le-point-de-vue-de-luc-marchal/.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Abari boherejweyo na FPR ni Claude Dusaidi na Gérald Gahima. Kuri iyi ngingo, wareba ubuhamya bwa Théogène Rudasingwa, umunyamabanga mukuru wa FPR muri 1994 http://www.france-turquoise.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/NON-À-L.pdf cyangwa nanone ubuhamya bwa Gérald Gahima, mu ngingo ifite umutwe uvuga ngo « Rwanda : Le point de vue de Gerald Gahima », Jambonews du 28 décembre 2010. http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20101228-rwanda-le-point-de-vue-de-gerald-gahima/
  23. Rapport Trevidic, les rwandais de France s’expriment, (minute 4) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQfcBm5Tr3Y&t=381s
  24. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) National Team Inquiry, Internal memorandum, (rapport Hourigan) http://jambonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/rapport-hourigan.pdf
  25. Affidavit de Michael Hourigan, p. 3. http://jambonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/rapport-hourigan.pdf
  26. Ibid.
  27. Urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda (ICTR), Raporo yuzuye ku bihereranye n’iperereza ryakozwe ku byaha byakozwe n’ingabo za FPR Inkotanyi (RPA) muri 1994, 1 October 2013, p. 1. http://www.jambonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Document_TPIR_2003.pdf
  28. Ibid. p. 25.
  29. Hano,wahabona inyandiko y’ikinyamakuru Marianne yo kuwa 28 nzei 2018 “ Exclusif – Rwanda : le document top secret qui accuse le régime de Kagamé » https://www.marianne.net/monde/exclusif-rwanda-le-document-top-secret-qui-accuse-le-regime-de-kagame
  30. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), General report on the Special Investigations concerning the crimes committed by the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) during 1994, 1 October 2013, p. 1. http://www.jambonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Document_TPIR_2003.pdf, p . 21.
  31. Del Ponte : le piège Rwandais, https://pages.rts.ch/emissions/temps-present/justice-criminalite/1284904-del-ponte-le-piege-rwandais.html
  32. Voy. Supra : Première enquête du TPIR : « l’assistance d’un gouvernement étranger »
  33. Nitwe twabyanditse gutyo
  34. Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, ordonnance de soit-communiqué, délivrance de mandats d’arrêts internationaux, par le juge J.-L. Bruguière, Paris, 17 novembre 2006, http://jambonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/rwanda-rapport-bruguiere.pdf.
  35. « Kigali rompt ses relations diplomatiques avec Paris », Le Monde du 25 novembre 2006.
  36. République du Rwanda, Rapport d’enquête sur les causes, les circonstances et les responsabilités de l’attentat du 06/04/1994 contre l’avion présidentiel rwandais Falcon 50 Ni 9XR-NN, http://mutsinzireport.com/?page_id=47
  37. Cour d’appel de Paris, Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris, Rapport d’expertise, destruction en vol du Falcon 50 Kigali (Rwanda), 5 janvier 2012, p. 313.
  38. Massimo Pasuch se trouvait dans son domicile situé dans le camp de Kanombe le soir du 6 avril 1994 et avait été entendu dès mai 1994. Il avait affirmé que, d’après ce qu’il avait vu « le tir lui semblait venir de (…) direction de Masaka ». Daniel Daubresse se trouvait également au domicile du docteur Pasuch et, fût entendu dès le 13 avril 1994, il avait estimé sur base de ce qu’il avait vu que les tirs provenaient « (…) soit directement depuis cette colline [de Masaka], soit dans la zone entre lui-même [Kanombe] et cette colline [Masaka]», Cour d’appel de Paris, Parquet du Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, réquisitoire définitif aux fins de non-lieu, n° 2113/00/13, 11 octobre 2018.
  39. « Génocide rwandais : le rapport qui divise », TV5Monde du 13 janvier 2012.
  40. Patrick Karegeya : «Nous savons d’où les missiles sont partis», RFI du 9 juillet 2013.
  41. « Rwanda : les 10 discours glaçants de Paul Kagame », http://www.jambonews.net/actualites/20190322-rwanda-les-10-discours-glacants-de-paul-kagame/.
  42. Attentat Habyarimana: l’enquête française relancée par un dissident rwandais qui accuse Kagame, la libre du 7 octobre 2016.
  43. « Nous avons lutté pendant des années contre un dictateur et nous avons mis au pouvoir un tyran », mo du 19 mars 2012.
  44. Rwanda: «J’ai assisté à la préparation de l’attentat qui a déclenché le génocide», Marianne du 31 mars 2014.
  45. Judi Rever, o.c.,p. 185.
  46. Emile Gafirita abandonné à des assassins : inconséquence ou affaire d’Etat dans le bras de fer entre la France et le Rwanda ?, http://bernardlugan.blogspot.com/2016/12/emile-gafirita-abandonne-des-assassins.html
  47. Judi Rever, o.c., p. 186. ,
  48. Rwanda – Me Cantier : « J’ignore qui a enlevé Émile Gafirita » https://www.jeuneafrique.com/38357/politique/rwanda-me-cantier-j-ignore-qui-a-enlev-mile-gafirita/
  49. Rwanda : le président Kagame menace la France d’une nouvelle rupture diplomatique, France 24 du 11 octobre 2016.
  50. France-Rwanda : Comment Macron a parachuté Mushikiwabo à l’OIF, Jambonews du 24 février 2019.
  51. Cour d’appel de Paris, Parquet du Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, réquisitoire définitif aux fins de non-lieu, n° 2113/00/13, 11 octobre 2018.
  52. Affaire Habyarimana: non-lieu en France pour sept proches de Kagame, RFI du 26 décembre 2018.
  53. “Un juge espagnol émet 40 mandats d’arrêt contre les chefs de l’armée rwandaise » Le monde 7 février 2008.
  54. Sherpa « Génocide au Rwanda: révélations sur les mensonges de la France – Médiapart et Radio France », 7 février 2019.
  55. « Génocide rwandais: l’embarrassante note de la DGSE », l’express du 06 février 2019.
  56. Voy. Supra, “les différentes thèses”
  57. Judi Rever, o.c., p. 189.
  58. « Attentat contre Habyarimana et génocide rwandais : déconstruction d’une conspiration », Marianne du 5 avril 2019.
  59. Témoignage de Noel Twagiramungu, Cour d’appel de Paris, Parquet du Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, réquisitoire définitif aux fins de non-lieu, n° 2113/00/13, 11 octobre 2018, p. 51.
  60. Ibid.
  61. « La disparition du haut magistrat Augustin Cyiza: sa famille porte plainte », The Rwandan, 11 avril 2013.

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